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Medical Missionary in China. 












<fcc., &c., 

Secretary of the Legation of the United States, Peking, 
ly his obliged friend 




This Chinese and English list of proper names of places, persons, dynasties, 
tribes and sects, having interest or relation to both Chinese and foreigners, 
was begun to be compiled in ignorance of the existence of a somewhat similar 
appendix to a work on Chinese topography, by the learned and indefatigable 
author of the "Middle Kingdom." It professes to treat briefly of those unusual 
designations, called ^Ij :^ pieh ming, of places in China Proper, which often 
puzzle readers and translators, and of the names of those colonial or semi- 
dependent states which now do, or formerly did, range themselves around the 
''favoured nation" more directly ruled by the Emperor of China. Names of 
places, etc, in Corea, Burmah, Siam, Malaysia, India, and Asia in general, have 
been added, together with stray names of western countries and peoples who 
have, or had, relations with China. In this way it is hoped that the list may 
be advantageously consulted as a supplement to the dictionaries of the Chinese 
language, not hitherto supplied with this convenient arrangement. Matters 
of historical, classical, geographical, and commercial interest, and some of 
the important changes wrought in Turkestan and Central Asia by the joint 
action of Mohammedan disaffection and Russian enterprise, have been occa- 
sionally introduced, so as to bring the information up to the most recent dates. 
Japanese names, as written in Chinese, have been conveniently incorporated, 
and the most important places in China. mentioned in Marco Polo's writino-s 
have been emphasised. Traces of the profession of the compiler will be occa- 
sionally met with in the shape of short references to drugs. To the labours of. 

Duhalde, Morrison, Davis, Williams, Legge, Julien, Pauthier, Wylie, Edkins, 
Mayers, WilliamsoD, and a score of contributors to the literature of the subjects 
involved, the compiler is almost entirely indebted for what is valuable in this 
brief summary. At the same time it is but fair to state that, as often as 
possible, the original Chinese and other works treating upon the matters in 
hand, have been carefully examined. To the contributors to the " Chinese 
Repository," Dennys's "Treaty Ports of China and Japan," the "Notes and 
Queries on China and Japan," and the "Transactions of the North China 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society," as well as to the exhaustive works of 
Max Miiller, much obligation is freely confessed. An index has been provided 
as a means of reference for those who are more familiar with the names of 
places used in foreign works, than with the ordinary phonetic equivalent of the 
Chinese character. Some Chinese names included in the text will also be found 
in the index, which should be consulted in cases where the alphabetical series 
has failed to afford the clue. For almost all other occasions it is hoped that 
the list, arranged alphabetically according to the mandarin pronunciation, may 
be found convenient and instructive to those who, like the compiler, are en- 
gaged in their earlier studies of a Babel tongue. 

Hankow, March 31st, 1870. 

F. P. S. 





05j nli ^a ^ A-ch'ih-li kwoh, a country oa the Coromandel coast of South India, said to 
yield the best olibanum. There is an A-Jd-ni, which has been identified wilh Kharaghar. 

1*^ 5W A-clnng, or 0-fang-kung, the palace or harem of Ts'in-chi-hwang at Si-ngan fu, in 

I*^ ^j ^^ 5W A-keh-suh ching, Aksn, or Oksu in Cliinese Tartary, the Auxasia of Ptolemy, 
an important town, containing 20,000 people, more civilized than those of the remaining 
districts of yS'm Kiang. It lies on the great road to Ili, in Lat. 41° 09' N., and Long. 19" 
13' E., to the east of Ushi. The district of the same name is bounded E. by the petty 
chiefdoms of Bai and Sairim : S. by the desert, and on the west by Ushi. 

IW ^^iS iPj A-keh-tan ho, or the Alotan river, one of the sources of the Yellow Eiver. 

r^ ^ A-kwan, or 0-kwan, a name of Shensi province, or thereabouts, during the Ts 'in dy- 

P^ ^ W ^ W 4^ >^ A-la-shen ngeh-lu-teh k*i, or the banner of the Alashan Eleuths. 
Their country lies west of Nmghia fu in Kansuh, and north of the Great Wall, as far as 

|>^ ^ ^E ^ 506 A-leh-tsu-keh cliing or Altchucu, one of the seven garrisons in Kirin, 
lying at the mouth of the river of the same name, a branch of the Spngari, E.N.E. of 

{^ M. ^ A-li ching, Ari, or Nari^ a district and town of Ulterior Thibet, is an extensive but 
thinly-settled region, containing tracts of desert land, stretching from Tsang to Ladak. It 
borders on Badakshan and Caslmiere on the west. 

1^ i^ A-lu, a kingdom of Sumatra, to the E. of Achcen. 

j>q i^ y^ ^ ]p(^ A-lu-ko-rh-tsin, or Aru Korchin, the north Korchins, a tribe of Mongols 
in Imier Mongolia. 

Ee >f^ i^ A-ma-ngau, the port of the goddess A-ma, the name which is probably the origin 
of the name of the island and port of Macao. 

Pi^ ^ P^ 'W A-mi-to-fuh, or Ta-mi-to, Amita-bha, or Amita Buddha of the west 

^ i^M ^-taiij or Ngan-tan, the Koman emperor Marciis Aurehus Antoninus, who sent an 
cmliassy to China, A.D. 161-6. This name is sometimes written An-tmi. 

I^ ^ ^ 1^ ^ A-pa-ha-nah-rh, or Abaganar, a tribe of the fourth corps of Inner Mon- 
golia, di\dded into two baimers, and lying north of Tsakhar, and 640 li N. E. of Kalgan, 

|5^ ^ ^ A-pa-kai, the Abagais, a tribe of the fourth corps of Inner Mongolia, living be- 
tween Tsakhar, or Chahar, and Gobi, 590 // N.E. of Kalgan. 

I>i^ ^5 ^f ^ A-pa-ko-rh, the country of Bokhara, called also Pou-ho-rh. 

P^ ^ tS ^rT A-rh-tan ho, a name d the Yellow Eiver in its early course. See A-keh- 
tan ho. 

|)^ 77* A-tan, or 0-tan, the Mahommedan name for Adam in Chinese. This is also the name 
of a country, mentioned in the Pen T'sau as furnishing the medicine, called f^ ^^ '^, 
Ling-yang-koh, or antelope-horn. See 0-tan. 

|)i^ ^^ A-wa, Ava, or Aungwa, the capital city and kingdom of Burmah, formerly including 
Pegu and Arracan. See Mien-tien, or Mien kwoh. 

|>^ g2i ^"J^ ^'^ 0-yih, the name of Timg-o hien, or Yang-kub hicn, in Shantung province, 
during the Confucian period. See Tung-o hien. 


"^ Yw Cha-pu, the port of Hang-chau, or Cha-pu cMn, "the mart of Cha-pu," whence trade is 

carried on with Japan. This is not to be confounded with the Canfu of Marco Polo. See 

■^ J Cha-ya, or Jaya, a town and district in Thibet, inhabited by mountaineers, partially 

mdependent of Chinese rule. 
^^ ^P Pw Chah-ha-rh, Chahar or Tsakhar, a district lying north of Shansi, inhabited by the 

Tsakhar tribe of Mongols, whose pastures are included in ChihU province. They make up 

eight banners, and are controlled by an officer at Chang-kia gate. 
RS ^ Chah-ho, the " River of Locks," the Grand Canal, upon which there were at least ten 

large locks under as many officers. See Yun-Hang ho. 
HiA ^^ 4nP Chah-lai-teh, the Tchalits, a Mongolian tribe, on the west of the Nonni river, west 

of Kirin ula. 
dpTr j^ ^1^ Chah-lu-teh, the Djarots, a Mongol tribe dwelling 1,100 U N.E. of Hi-fung gate, 

in the Great Wall, and west of Shingking. 
^* TJ^ ^ ^^ Chah-muh-to ching, Tsiando, or Chamdo, a miHtary post, the capital of 

KJiam, in the N.W. of Anterior Thibet. 
^\^ "^-y ^ Chah-shih ching, Chashi, or Djassi, a district and town of Anterior Thibet, N.W. 

of Hlassa, and the seat of a small Chinese garrison. 
^L f"h "^ fl^ ^ Chah-shih lun-pu ching, Teshu hlumbu, or Zhikatse-jung, the capital 

city of Tsang, or Ultericar Thibet, 26 mUes west of Hiassa, and the residence of the tesJm- 

laim, or banohin erdem. It contains some three or four hundred houses, with palaces, con- 
vents, and maasolea, and is situated in the fertile basin of the Yaru-tsangbu, in Lat. 29^ 
4' 90" N., and Long. 89° 7' E. A large trade was canied on hence to the mouth of the 
Ganges. The teshu-lama is in some, sense more important than his more poHtical col- 
league, the dcdai-lanux, 

?L ^) (^ Chah-sih-kang, Teshigang, a district in Thibet. 

^^ ^P ^§ Chang-chun ting, in Kirin, one of the smallest of the three ting departments of 
that province, lying on its western borders, due west of Kirin ula, and on the west of the 
Songari river. 

^^ |li^ Chang-k'i, the port of Nagasaki m Japan. 

^^ ^^ Chang-kiun, one of Ts m Chi-hwang's prefectures, answering to a part of Yang-chau 
of Yii's time. 

7^ ^ |IJ Chang-kia-k au, a pass in the Great Wall, near which is Kalgan, a large town on 
the line of the caravan road prescribed in the new Russo-Chinese treaty, in the department 
of Kaurpeh-tm, in Chilili. Lat. 40'' 54' N., and Long. 114° 50' E. Kalga is the Mongol 
word for a mart. Native soda is largely exported from this town. 

-^ yX Chang-kiang, the " Long Eiver," the Yangtsz'. See Ta Kiang. 

|g [^ Chang kwoh, the sub-prefecture of Ting-hat ting in Chekiang. 

j^ ^ Chang-ngan, the name of the old capital of Shensi province, also the capital of China, 
in the T sin, Han, Sui, and T ang periods. It was known to the Nestorians as K/iouMam, 
or Kounidam. The province is still called by this name in official documents, and it is con- 
tinued as the name of a district. 

;^ H U-l Chang-peh shan, the southern extremity of the range of Sih-Mh-tih mountains, near 
the Corean frontier. The perennial snows of this mountain have rendered it a mark of 
veneration. It was the home of the Manchu race. 

pf (SI ^ Chang-t'u ting, a district of Fung-t'ien fu, in Shingking. 

^^ ^ Chang-ye, a mart on the " Western Borders," for traffic between the 44 tribes of Fcui 
and Hivuits£, and the Chinese. 

y^ jf^ Chan fu, see Kiang-chau fu. 

/ N \^ Chau-mei, a place to the N. of Puh-ui on Chinese maps, and probably identical with 
Chiang-mai, the capital of North Laos. 

7^ jjj Chau shan, or " Boat Island," the largest island of the Chusan Archipelago. The 
district-town of Tinghai, lying on the southern side of the island, is the capital. 

^ ^ Chau-sien, the Chinese official name of Corea, as a tribute-bearing country. It is di- 
vided into eighf provinces, called tau. See Kau-li kwoh. 

^ Wf- y^ ^ Chau-sien-t'ien-tuh, a name of India. See TW tuh. 

/l V ffi Chau-wa, the island of Java, sometunes called Ye-po-thi, or Yava-dwipa. See Koh-lah-pa. 

fln ^^ ?M .m. Chau-wu-tah ming, one of the sis ming, or corps of Inner Mongolia, living 
towards the N.E. of that country. 

/|V 52 Chau-ya, the Javanese. See Chau-wa. 

W- pi5 @i Che'-sz' kwoh, the capital and country of the Tuh-kiue/i, or Turkic tiibes of Central 

Asia, during the fifth century. See Wu-lu-moh-lsl 

j5 5W ^^^^^ ching, a place described as peopled by the Laos tiibes, and answering to some 
such town as Saigon. It is however commonly referred to Tsiampa, fonnerly an indepen- 
dent portion of Cochin China. See Shi-pi. Cambodia is sometimes called Chen-lah, in- 
stead of Chin-lah. Lin-yih may have been in Tsiampa. 

j5 -^ Chen-pi, Tsiampa. See Chen ching, and Ping-shun chin. 

Orf& -iifn 44-F^ 

9@ i^ 5W Chen-teh ching, a garrison toA^Ti in Ili, situated N.W. of Hwuiyuen cliing, to 

which it is attached. 
;:^ Z^ Chi-fau, or Chefoo, a harbour in the same bay as Ye/itui, the actual port, misnamed 

Chefoo. There is a point near this, caJled Chefoo Cape. 
"^ ^t. ^ .Si CH-ll-muh ming, one of the sLx corps of Iimer Mongolia, li\ ing on the borders 

of Kiiin and Shingking. 
^^ ^ Chi-na, an Indian name for China. See Chin-tan. 
7^1 yx Chi-wan, the island of Timor, one of the principal sources of sandal-wood. 
^f\ ^, ^^ jji\ Chih-hien-shin-chau, an old name of China. 
^j^ ']^ Ch'ih-ni, a Mohammedan name of China. See Tung-t'u. 
*^ ^^ Ch'ih-pah, a race descended from the Tung-lm, or, as some say, the descendants of 

old Hwang-tL 
Jg[ -^ Ch'ih sang, a collective name of all the provinces of China Proper. See Shih-pah-sang. 
^p» j^ Ch'lh-t'u, a country in the ' Southern Sea," near Fivnan, and probably identical with 

Sien-lo, or Siam. See Sien-Io. 
j^ Chin, the capital of Fuh-hi, near K ai-fung fu (Hon an). 
J^ jj*j Chin-chau, the district of I'-ching, in Yang-chau ft;. See Lwan-kiang and Yang-tsz' 

^^ /X Chin-kiang, a treaty-port and prefectnral city, near the joining of the Grand Canal and 

the Yang-tsz' kiang. 
J^ Kit Chiu-lali, or r^ H^ Chen-lah, the kingdom of Cambodia, lying between Annam and 

Siam. It was fii-st tributary to, and then absorlxid by the state of Fu-nan. See Tung- 

p u-chai. 
^^ ]?§ Chin-si, the department of Chin-si fu, in Kansuh, sometimes called Barkid. 
^ _§. Chin-tan, an Indian name for Cliina. See Chi-na. 
W^ ^ ^li Ching CH-lung, the name of the father of Koxinga, the Formosan cliief, whose 

own name was Ching Ching4.'ung, and that of his son, CImtg K isJavang, who received the 

title of Wang, on his submission. 
Wd ^ 'S» V^ Cliing-ldh-sz'-han, Genghis Khan, the Greatest (or Strongest) Klian, the style 

of Temugin, grandsire of Kublai Khan. See Teh-mah-cliin. 
-^ f^ S Ching-teh hien, in Shingking, belonging to Fung-t'ien fu, in Lat. 41° OG' N., and 

Long. 117° 46' E. 
)^ ^ jj^ Cliing-tu fu, or Yih chaa in Sechiien. See next. 

j^ ^ j|§ Cliing-tu In, the province of Sechuen under the Mongols, called SanJanm by Mar- 
co PoIj. CMng4xi is Still the name of the capital of Sechuen. It is the SiuHlu-fu of Marco 

Polo, was the capital of the After Han dynasty, and is still a fine city. 
n^ Ms Wf op Choh-lo-sz' pu, the Choros tribes, arranged under two standards, Kving in the 

south of Kokonor. The word ^jm stands for aimak, i. e. tribes of Persia. 
■^ ^ mi .ml Choh-soh-t'u ming, the Choshots, one of the six corps of Inner Mongolia, 

hving in the S.W. of that country. 
^H W" ^^^ ^^^' ^ collective name for all foreign cotintries. See Nui fan. 
^H '^ ^^^^'^ ^^^^^ " -^-^ ^^^ Chinas," a name of the Chinese Empire. 

I ^ ^ ^J 'SS i§ S Chu-mih fuh-sz' poh-lo, the style and name of Marco Polo, the Vene- 
tian traveller, as junior envoy " and privy coimcillor," accredited to the King of Annam, 

from Kiiblai Klian. See Poh-lo. 
^t ||1| ^3 Chii-sien chin, one of the forn* marts in China, to the S. of K ai-fung fu, (Honan). 
^^ ujC Me Chu-po-ti, an old name of the kingdom of Burmah. 
|T| -^ Chuh-t au, the artificial fan shaped island of Deslma, near the city of Nagasaki, the 

prison of the Portuguese and Dutch traders in Japan. See P ing-hu-t au. 
I^ n^ ^ Chun-kieh-rh, Soungar, the name of an extinct tribe of I'li. See T'ien-shan-peh-Iu. 
Pp ff] Chung chau, an old name for Honan province, stiU used in documents. This is the 

foundation and seat of that central region " which grew into the Chung kwoJi, which see. 
Fp ^^ jjf^ Chung-hing fu, the capital of the Hia kingdom, the Calatia of Marco Polo, and 

now called NingMa, the head of a department in Kansuh. It was also formerly called 

Fp ^* Chvmg hwa, " Central Flower," a name of Honan province, extended to China at large. 

China is called JSlkm Kuran in Manchu. See Chung-jiien. 
^^i ^g Ch ung-king, a prefectural city in Sechuen, 720 miles from Hankow, and 6,670 li from 

Peking. It stands at the point of junction of the Kia-ling river with the Yang-tsz', and 

receives the traffic of one third of the province. 
fp ^ Chung kwoh, China, the " Middle Kingdom." See Chung-yuen and Chung chau. 

This name would appear to be applied to India by Fah-hien, in his Fuh-kwoh-ki. 
Pp \±\ Chimg shan, the " Central Moiuit," on which is built the capital of the kingdom of 

Lew-chew. See Shau-ni and Liu-kiu kwoh. 
^ ^ ~. Chung-t'ien chuh, Central India, answering to the once powerful state of Malwah. 

See T'ien chuh kwoh, and Si T ien. 
Pp ^ Chimg-tu, a town in the old state of Lu, of which Confucius was made governor. See 

Pp j^ Chung-yuen, an old name of Honan province, afterwards applied to the whole of China. 

For many years before the final subjugation of the numerous nations of the " Eastern for- 
eigners," by the Han emperors, China was in another sense a middle kingdom," between 

these and the Miautsz' and other tribes. 

^j Fan, the country of Magadha. It also stands for the Pali and for the Sanscrit languages. 

Fan is said to be an abbreviation of Fan-lan-mo, or Brahma. 
^v 5M ^^"^ cb'ng. See Siang-ho. 
^^ fW Fan-sang, tlie Bonzes, or Buddhist priests in China and Japan. These Chinese words 

are pronounced Bomu in Japan, and were thence probably inti'oduced by the Portuguese 

into China. 
^^ ^ ^W Fan-t u cliing, the capital city of Bokhara. 
^P (^ Fan-yang, a name of Fung-t'ien fix or Shingking pun ching. It was one of the ca 

pitals of the Wei princes. 
•»^gj (^ Fan-yang, the chief department and capital of the prefecture of Yu chau under T sin 

Chi-hwang, answering to what is now Shim-I'liien and Ting-hing hien in Cliihh'. 
^^ li|| Fan-yu, the capital of Klau chau, one of the provinces of the Tsin dynasty. 
^^ p^ Fau-t'u, a name of Buddha, sometimes g^ven to Buddhist priests. 
^^ ^Ppl P^ Fci-ya-k eh, a hunting tribe on the Sagalien river. 
•p^ »^ P^ Fu-lu-rh, a Mahommedan ti'ibe, to the W. of Yarkand. 
^X, ^^ Fu-nan, an old Cambodkn kingdom to which Chin-lah was annexed. It lay some 

7,000 U to the S.W. of Jeh-nan, and more than 3,000 li to the S.W. of Lin-jih. See 

Kih kwoh. 
•^ ^ ® Fu-sang kwoh, or -^ ^ ^ Fuh-sang kwoh, a country named after the Fu- 

sang shrub, a Malvaceous genus (Althoea rosea ?), and producing reddish pears, excellent 

grapes, cream, or kumiss, and abounding in valuable metals, but without iron. It is said 

to be 25,000 li to the E. of China. A Buddliist priest, named Hwui-shin, came to China 

from thence, during the T si dynasty. 
S it |JL| Fu-sz' shan, the Fusiyama (mountain) m Japan. 
•^ ^ Fu-yu, or ^ ^, a country to the N. of Kau-ku-li, related to Peh-tsi. It is said to 

have belonged to Yuen-t u. 
jp§ Fuh. This word when found on Cb'nese cash, stands for Fuhkien, one of the 25 Chinese 

mints in Kanghi's time. 
j0g j^ Fuh-chau, or Hok-chiu hu, the " Happy region," the capital of Fukien, in Lat. 26° 5' 

N., and Long. 119'' 20' E. Yung ching and San shan are names of this departmental city. 
^^ ^J'l Fuh-chau, a sub-department of Fung-t'ien fu in Shingking. 

^M. '-^H ^ Fuh chau ching, a garrison in Sliingking, subordinate to the Shingkiag-pun-ching. 
"^ WL Fuh kiau, the Buddhist religion. See San kiau and Shih kiau. 
^ ^ Fuh-kwoh, the " Buddhist country " of India. 
"^ is '^ Fuh-lang-ki, the Feringhis or Franks, a name given to the Portuguese in 1517, 

on their landing ui China, under Femao Peres de Andrado. This was the first formal 

intercourse of modem European nations wth the Chinese of the south, ending m a penna- 

nent establishment. Eaphael Perestrello, a descendant of Columbus, had previously reached 

in 1516, one of the islands at the mouth of the Canton River. See Sih-tsz'-nien. 

^ Jk ® Fuh-langHsi, a name ^ven to the French and their country, and to other western 
nations. See Ta fah kwoh. 

HlS "^ Fiih-lau, or Hoklo, the people of C/uai'^hoiv, in the N.E. of Canton province. They 
prevail in the Luhfung, Haifung and Kweisban distiicts oi Hweichau fu. They are said to 
have come from Fukien, some five or six centm-ies ago. They speak the Tiechiu dialect, 
which is quite distinct from that of the Hakkas or Puntis. They are a bold, cruel and 
marauding race. See Keh-kia. 

ifp ^ |ii Fuh-lin-kwoh, or Pih-lin-kwoh, a country said to be related to Persia, but of a 
different language. It has been variously identified vAih. Palestine, Syria and the Koman 
empire. Pauthier suggests that the words point to Constantinople, as the capital (polin), of 
the Byzantine empire. It seems more likely that the name refers to the Philistines (Phu- 
listiemi), who gave their name to Palestine. They were of Hamitic origin, and their name 
occurs as Phut, in connexion with Persia in Ezekiel xxvii. 10. They had large navies, and 
rich fleets of merchantmen in many seas. They are very likely to have been confused or 
conjoined with their northern neighboure the Phoenicians, whose name sufficiently resembles 
the Chinese Fuh-lin. Herodotus says that the Phoenicians had migrated from the Eed 
Sea at an early period. The Persian gulf as one arm of the Red Sea, would bring them 
into connexion with Peraia. Phoenician numerals resemble the Chinese forms somewhat. 

W^ V^ Fuh-ni, a country to the S.E. of Canton, answering to Borneo. See Puh-ni. 

'^ [_Lf Fuh-shan, or Fatshan, near Canton, one of the largest marts of the empire. The ex- 
pression ^ g^ Wu chin, or " five guards," or five protecting hills is applied to five cele- 
brated subordinate peaks. 

>^ Ml JS Fung-hwang ting, in Shingking, department of Fung-t'ien fii, Hes on the eastern 
frontier, near the Yahlung river, and monopolizes all the trade with Corea. 

^^ ^ jf^ Fimg-t'ien fu, in Shingking, is the Chinese name for Moukden, the capital of Man- 
churia. It lies in Lat. 41° 50' 30" N., and Long. 123^ 37' 30" E. It is the capital 
of a very large department. It was also called Fan-yang in the Wei and Mongolian 


^ #J iJ? tfe Ha-la-sha-la. See Kharashar. 

0^ ^^ Ha-mih, or Hamil, a town included in Kansuh, "W. of the Great Wall, belonging to 
the district of Barkul, or Chin-si. It formerly belonged to the Songares, an Eleuthian 
tribe, now scattered. It is pleasantly situated in Lat. 42°, 1,600 U beyond the gate called 
Kia-yu-kwan. See I-wu-lu. 

5p 1^ ^] Ha-sah-keh, the Hassacks, or Cossacks, sometimes called Sara Kaizak, or "robbers 

of the desert." They lived, originally, between the Ob and Yenesei rivers, where Mongolic 
tribes settled among them. They now occupy part of Bokhara and Kolcand, N.W. of 
Tarbagatai in Songaria. 

7W WL /^ Hai-ching hien, in Shingking, department of Fung-t'ien fu. 

)f^ |II Hai-k an, or Hoihau, a seaport in the island of Hainan. 

y^ ^ Hai-ngan, the coast-line of the " Eastern Sea," dra^^^l on Chinese maps. 

'/^ jl§ 1^ Hai-si kwoh, a name of Ta-ts'in, lying W. of the Caspian Sea, the limit of Clii- 
nese adventure, according to some. The name soimds like Asia. See Li-han. 

y^ -^ Hai-t au, a name usually referred to the islands on the E. of China. This tenn is 
translated by Staunton in his Tartar Code" as "foreign islands." See Tau-i. 

*/$ ^ Hai-t ang, the " Sea-bund" formed in the 7th century along the bay of Hang-chow, 
to resist the action of the high tides. 

•/^ ^ ^ Hai-ya kwoh, Herat, or Heri, the ancient Aria, the Haroyu of the Zend Avest?, 
from Avhence assafoetida used to come to China. 

1^ /M Han-ch'uen, a name of Han-chimg fu in Shensi. There is a district of this name in 

i^ PP Han-chung in Shensi, the Cancun of Marco Polo. This was the name of one of Ts m 
Chi-h Wang's 40 prefectin-es, forming a part of Yimg chau, or Ho-si. See Hing-yuen lu. 

Jf;^ y^ Han hai, the nan'ow westerly portion of the great Desert of Gobi. See Ko-pih. The 
Chan-t ang or Aksai-chin, commencing near Eodok, is said by some to join Gobi. See 
Lo-to-keh ching. 

^^ PJ Han-k au, or ]^ ^^ Han-kau, the port of Hankow, at the mouth of the Han river, 
distant from Shanghai 582 geographical miles, and situated in Lat. 30^ 32' 5V' K, and 
Long. 114° 19' 55'' E. As one of the largest marts in China it is called *^ j^, Han- 
chin. As the Han, from its mouth to the large city of Siang-yang fu, is sometimes spoken 
of as the Siang ho, so Hankow is often called in old writings Siang-ho-k au, or Siang-k au. 
It is also spoken of as Jl^ ^ ^^ \^, Kiu-sang-t'ung-k'u, or ^ '^ ^ ^, Wu-fang- 
tsah-ch u, terms signifying that it is the great thoroughfare of half of China, and the resi- 
dence of a mixtm-e of folks from all quarters. Hankow was anciently called Hia-k'au and 
Mien-k au. 

I^J 'm^ ^ Han-kuh kwan. See Kwan. 

^1^ ]^ Han-nan, a name of King chau, under the Shang dynasty. 

*l^ V^ Han-tsin, the name by which the Han-yang hien was known before the T ang dynas- 
ty. See Ts ing-ch uen. 

lP% it Han-t u, the Japanese name for China. 

J^ ^ Wf 'iS Han-t'u-sz'-tan, Hindostan. See Wan-t'u-sz' tan. 

*^ j^ ^ Han-yang kwan, the name of an ancient banier in Pau-ching liien (Shensi), 
which probably gave its name to the prefecture of Han-yang, fonnerly spoken of as a part 
of Kiang-hia kiun. This latter name is now confined to a district in Wuchang fu. See 
Han-kau, T'sing-ch uen, Tun-yang and Han-tsin. 

WL <RJ Hang-ho, the sacred river of India, the Ganges. The Chinese name is nearly the same 

as " Gimga," the Go-go, meaning the " Ceaseless River." A Chinese number called 'fg 
I Pj ij^' extends to fifty-three places of figures. 
^j ^^ Hau-ldng, the capital of Wu-wang, identified with Si King, or Chang-ngan (Shensi). 
-f^ ^^ Hau-tsang. See Si-tsang. 

3^ ifjl yX Heh-lung kiang, the Amur, Yamur, or Sagalien Ula (" Black Eiver.") The Chi- 
nese name signifies Black Dragon River." It is the sixth in rank of Asian rivers. After 
joining the Songari river it is called "/^ |^, Kwan-t ung. It rises in the Kenteh spur of 
the Daourian mountains, and has a course of more than 2,000 miles to the sea. Amur is 
the equivalent of Ta Kiang, or Great River," a name well deserved from the large area 
it drains, as well as from the extent of its tributaries. 
^ Hb i-^ ^K Heh-lung-kiang ching, the chief town of the N.E. division of Tsitsihar, which 
lies on the Amur, in Lat. 50° N., and Long. 127° E. It is sometimes called Sagalien ula, 
and is used as a penal settlement for Chinese ciiminals. 
^ y^ Heh shwui, a name of the Kin-sha-kiang. The Moh-hoh were called Heh-shwui 

Moh-hoh during the Sui dynasty, from a place in Shingking. 
^^ ^3 Hi-cliih, an ancient tribe of the T ang period, on the N.E., near Corea. 
1 1 S ^P ^W Hi-ch'un ching, a garrison and penal settlement, lying due N. of Hwuiyuen. 
■^ ^ PT Hi-fung k au, the most easterly pass in the Great Wall, in Lat. 40° 26' N. 
^^ [^ Hi kwoh, the country of Siberia. 

^^ TJil] Au Hi-li-ni, the ordinary transference into Chinese of the name of the Hellenes, or 
Greeks. The ancient Greeks knew nothing of China, and China knew nothing of them 
perhaps. See Wu-cht-kwoh. 
i^ y ^ Hi-peh-lai, the usual way of writing the word Hebrew in Chinese translations. 
K^ ^ Hia-i, or " Crab Barbarians," the Chinese name for the natives of Yesso. They are 

also called AinoS. 
J^_ P^ Hia-men, the port of Araoy, one of the best on the coast ; the Taitun of Marco Polo. 

By some Taitun is referred to Chinchew. See T'siuen-chau fu. 
j^ -^ Hia t au, the island of Amoy, sometimes called Lu-men or Lu-tau, contaim'ng the city 
of the same name on the S. W. comer. The trade of Amoy once extended to Persia, India, 
and Malaysia. Marco Polo speaks of two ports under the name of Taitun, or Zaitim. 
^^ f^ Hiang-ldang, or Hong Kong, the island of " Fragrant streams," situated at tlie mouth 

of the Canton river, m Lat. 22° 26' 30" N., and Long. 114° 08' 30" E. 
:ft W^ 1® ix. S. Hiau-lo-ko-mnh-li, the Chinese name of the place from whence the Kara 
Kitan, or Tungusic progenitors of the Liau dynasty came. It was situated somewhere in 
the mountains north of Corea, from whence they descended into the provinces in Tartar}', 
called after their dynastic name Liau-tung and Liau-si, and other provinces in northern 
China. They were called by the Nu-chin, the ancestors of the Kin and Manchu dynasties, 
Kara Kitai, or Black Tartars, after their subjection in the 11th century. They reigned by 
nine princes for 209 years, under the name of the Liau dynasty, over an empire in the 
north of China, which reached also to Kashgar and the T'simg-ling mountams in the west. 
Their descendants, fttrther scattered by Genghis Khan, are now met with as Mohammedans 


all over I'li, and in Daibend, near the Caspian Sea. See K'i-tan. 

3^^ ^^ Hien-tu, the Hindoo Kush mountains. 

ML W Hien-yang, the name of Si-ngan fu (Shensi), as the capital of China under the Ts m 
rale, in B.C. 249. 

^ C/U Hien-yun, the Hiung-nu, or Hims of the Chau dynasty, notorious for their savagery 
and insubordination in the time of Confucius. They are confounded Avith the Tah-tsu. 

J^ ^ 5W Hing-king chiug, subordinate to Sliingking pun ching in a mihtary point of view, 
is the family residence of the Manchu emperors of China, and theh bmial place. It is 
pleasantly situated in a valley, about sixty miles E. of Moiikden. 

^ ^ ^ ^ j^ Hing-king-H-sz' ting, one of the three tin^ departments of Shingking, con- 
taining the town just mentioned. It is the healtliiest part of Manchuria, which enjoys no 
gi'eat reputation for friendUness to man. 

J^ TC ^a Hing-yuen-lu, the province of Cuncim of Marco Polo, in Shensi, now the prefec- 
ture of Han-chimg. 
~^ Hioh-lau, a name of the Hoklo people. See Fuh-lau. 

j^ y^ Hiim-chuh, a pieh mint/ of the Hiung-nu. 

•"pfC ^[ Hiu-chu, a regal title or style among the Hiung-nu. See Shan-}ii, or Tan-yu. 

^^ ^^ Hiun-yuh, a name of the Tmkic Hiung-nu, imder the Hia dynasty. 

"^ ^gJt Hiung-nu, the name of the Tinkic tribes, during the Ts 'in and Han dynasties. They 
are identified by Cliinese historians with the [_[_[ ^K' Shan-jung of the " five emperors," 
the ^ ^, Hiim-chuh of Hwang-ti, the ^^ ^, Hiun-yuh, the ^^ ^^, Chun-wei 
(Hia), the J^ ~^, Kwei-fang (Yin), the /^ ^'^, Hien-yun (Chau), and the ^ J^, 
Tuh-kiueh of the Sui and Tang periods. They founded an empire (B.C. 206) comprising 
a large portion of Central Asia, on the western borders of China. They were defeated, after 
frequent warfare with Chinese, in the middle of the 1st century after Christ. Divided into 
a northern and a southern empire, they were successfully driven from tlieir temtories, and 
forced to migrate westwards. 'pjC p^, Hiu-chu and .|pL ^^ Shan-yu were regal titles or 
styles of their empire among them. See Oh-shi. 

1^ %X T^ y$ Hiimg-nu chung hai, the " Sea of Hunland," or Lake of Barkul. It gives 
its name to the surrounding district, which is more under cultivation near the lake. 

^^ "^ ^W Hiung-yoh ching in Sliingking, a garrison subordinate to Shingking pun cliing. 

^p]" Ho, the Ho, or river par excellence, the Yellow Eiver. See Hwang ho. 

y^ )p|*j Ho chau, the " Fire distiict," a name of the district of Bischbalik, or Turfan ting in 
Barkul, so called from the volcanic character of the coimtry. 

I^hJ* Pp jf^ Ho-chung fu, the Cdcianfu of Marco Polo, the P'u-chau fu of Shansi, of the pre- 
sent time. 

^ ^ ^ Ho-keh-tsi, Cogacin, the fifth son of Kublai Klian, and viceroy of Yunnan. 

^ ^ Ho kwoh, a country in the " Western borders," connected with Sogdiana. 

W Wi O Ho-lan kwoh, Holland. See Hung-mau. 

^ j^ Ho-lin, the ancient Kara korum, the " Black City," the capital of the Mongols, or des- 
cendants of Genghis Khan, where only a new khan could be chosen, and invested with the 


government of an empire which extended from CWna to Poland, from India to Siberia. 
It Is in Lat. 46= 40' N., and Long. 102" 50' E. See Ho-ning. 

tKJ .^ Ho-ning, a name given to the city of Kara korum, after the defeat of the Mongols. 
Some uncertainty exists as to its exact situation, which was between the Orkhun and Ta- 
mir. Kara korum is sometimes called OranbaUgh. 

^j ;^[j Ho-peh, an ancient province, about A.D. 200, now merged into Sbansi. The Ho-peh 
tau of later date included places in Pehchihli. 

^$P ^^ ^^ ^1( i Ho-shih kung-t'sm wang, the title of Piince Kung, uncle of the present 
emperor of China. See Kung-t sin-wang. 

^<P -^ $^ o|) Ho-sliih-teh pu, the tribes of Hoshoits, living on the north and west of the 
Azure sea. They are arranged with the Tourgouths, Kalkas and other Mongolian tribes 
under twenty-nine standards, and i-uled by the Mancliu general residing at Si-ning fu. 

iK, jjil|l ^^ Ho-shin kiau, the religion of the Parsees, worshippers of the " &e spirit" 

^RJ" ® Ho-si, Tangut, or Tocharia, a region N. of Kokonor, and N.W. of Shensi, the coimtry 
of the Uigurs. Yii's province of K i chau w^as divided by him into Ho-tung and Ilosi. 

ypj ^§ Ho-t'au, the " River's bend," a name given to the bend of the Yellow Eiver, outside the 
Great Wall, in the country of tlie Ortous Mongols, N. of Shensi. 

yRj" J[|§ yX Ho-ti kiang, a river near Yuen-kiang chau (Yimnan), also called the Sang-koi, 
and running into the Gulf of Tonquin. 

5j<tl ^ 5W Ho-tien ching, Hoten, or Khoten, a large district on the S.W. of the desert of 
Gobi, embracing all the country S. of Oksu and Yarkand, along the northern base of the 
Kwanlun moimtains, for more than three hundred miles from E. to W. The towTi of the 
same name, now called Ilchi, is in an extensive plain on the Khoten river, in Lat. 37° N., 
and Long. 80" 35' E. After the Tungani insmxection against Chinese rule in 1862, the 
Mufti Haji Habeeboolla was made governor of Khoten. He has since been murdered by 
Yakoob Beg, the conqueror of all Chinese Tmkestan. Khoten produces fine linen and 
cotton stuffs, jade ornaments, copper, grain and fniits. The English word cotton may have 
been derived from the name of tliis place, wliich is not far from Kau-chang, the country 
of the Uigurs who first utilized this staple. 

ypj ^^ Ho-tung, a part of the present provinces of Shansi and Shantung, anciently forming 
a tau, or province. 

I Rj iW\ Ho-yuen, a part of the " head waters " of the Yellow Eiver. There is a Ho-yuen hien 
in Canton province. 

^O* / 11 iPJ Hoh-chau ho, a name of the Kia-ling kiang, which joins the Ta Kiang at Chung- 
king. It rises in Shensi, and is afterwards joined by the Si-han (Kansuh), Fan-kiang and 
K u-ldang rivers. 

^^ .^ Hoh-han, or Kokand, the ancient Ferganah, a kingdom under the protection of Eussia, 
lying between Boldiara and Kashgar, and fertilized by the waters of the Jaxartes. Its 
modem capital Hes in a fraitful plain in Lat. 41° 40' N., and Long. 69" 50' E. Clover, 
hemp, and many important plants and trees, having the word Jiu before them, came from 
here. See Ta-vuen kwoh. 


^ 1^ Iloh-su, Khojend, or Kokand. See Ta-yuen kwoli. 

g^ Hu, the capital of the Wei state, one of the San kwoh of the latter end of the Tung Han 

period. It corresponded to the Hu chau or Hu chang, g^ j^, near Kai-fung fu. 

y^ ^ Hu-kwang, the old designation of the two provinces of Hupeli and Hunan. 
^j K ^S Hu-lan ching, the garrison of one of the bix commanderies of Tsitsiliar, or Heh- 

lung kiang. The town is small and recently built, and lies S.E. of Tsitsiliar, on the Son- 

gari liver, opposite Altchucu. Here the officer resides to control the tribes in the vicinity. 
Pj iM -^ ^ >W Hu-lun-pei-rh ching, Hiirun-pir, the smallest and most westerly of the 

sis districts of Tsitsihar, lying on a branch of the Amur, W. of the Iimer Hing-ngan range. 

The name is compounded of those of two of its lakes, the Hurun or Kerlon, and the Pir. 

It is bounded by the Tse tsen Khanate on the W. 
i^ 7M Hu-tuh, an old name of Shanghai. 
HM ^^ Hung-fah, or Koiibo, the inventor of the Japanese syllabary, called MralMna. See 

Shuh-chau. ^ He lived in China about A.D. 804. 
^H '/^ Hung hai, the Red Sea, answering to the Eiythraum IVIare of Herodotus, Avith its two 

arms, the Persian Gulf, or Eastern, and the Western, or Eed Sea of modern times. 
«X ^^ Hung-i, savage tribes, clad with cotton sashes and red tmbans, Hving between Yun- 
nan and Annam. They trade with the Armamites, bartermg precious stones for salt, which 

they are said to be without. 
^n |IJ Hung k au, or Hong-que, the site of the American settlement in Shanghai. This is 

situated on the Wusung river, at the point of junction with the Hwang-pu, on which the 

British and French settlements are situated. 
^^ ^ Hung-mau, a name given to the Dutch, on coming to Canton, and then extended to all 

foreigners. In Asiatic Russia the English are called " K/nmli" or ' Eed heads." See 

Hung-t ii-su. 
^X •j'g ImI "^ Hung-mau hNvui-tsz', the Mohammedan Tiu-kmans wearing "red (fez) caps." 

They came from Persia, and from countries beyond the Caspian. The first Jews coining 

to China, also came via. Persia, and were called Blue-cap " hwui tsz'. 
'^ )jt Hung-pin, the port of Yokohama in Japan. 
^i IS ift Hung-t u-su, the Bashee islands, to the S. of Formosa, belonging to Spain. The 

name " red headed islets," denotes theii- barbarian tenure. They are also called Botel Tobago. 
3^ ^ Hwa-liia, China. See Chung hwa. 
^2 ^ H Hwa-k'i kwoh, the " Country of the flowery flag." A Cliinese popular name for 

the United States, not now used in formal documents. See Mei kwoh. 
j^ ^ Hwainan, the name of an ancient cu'cuit, including most of the old pro\ince of Yang 

^ ^ JS Hwan-chun ching, a garrison post near the coast, in the S.E. part of Kirin, not 

far from the Corean frontier. It is subordbate to Ninguta, the largest town, but not the 

caplt:d of Kirin. The district round is very extensive, but is inhabited only by fishermen 
and hunters. 


^^ "5^ ^ Hwang-chi kwoh, a portion of Cocbln China. Rhinoceroses were sent from this 
coimtiy as tribute to the Chinese emperor P ing-ti. of the Han ilynasty. 

^' y^ Hwang hai. This is a doubtful name met with in later Chinese composition and re- 
ferred to the Tmig yang, or Yellow Sea. This was anciently called the ^ Jf^, Puh-hai, 
being the point at Avhich in the time of Yii the ^ ^r]*, Nih-ho, formed by the conjunc- 
tion of the nine streams of the Ho, or Hwang Ho, poured its watere into the tm'bid sea." • 

^^ ^pf Hwang ho, the Hoang ho, or the YelloAV River. This name may have been derived 
from its turbidity, imparted by the clayey soil of the Great Plain, through which it nms. 
In this respect the Yangtsz' might vie with the Hwang ho for muddmess. It is referred 
by some to the relation of the yellow or imperial colour to the central point of the Chinese 
planisphere, representing the middle kingdom." The Hwang-ho, in keeping Avith the 
expression ^Rj ^^ fff (^ ^^ j^ ^, was called Kara mouran, the ''Black river," by 
the Mongols, or the Caramoran of Marco Polo. See Ta c huen. 

^^ ^^ ^ Hwang-k'i IcAvoh, the '' Country of the Yellow Flag," a name given to the kbg- 
dom of Denmark, from the accidental colour of the flag-s of Danish ships. 

■^ Pq Hwang kwoh, a name given by the Japanese to theii' coimtry, as ruled by a theocratic 
dynasty. See Shin kwoh. 

^^ >|H Hwang-pu, or Whampoa, the anchorage for foreig-n sliips, distant some twelve miles 
from Canton. 

^^ Y^ Hwang-p'u, or Wongpoo, the tidal channel or river, upon which the native city of 
Shanghai is situated. It penetrates for some forty miles into the interior, and helps to drain 
the compHcated network of inland lakes. 

iS» Ou^ ?\.v( Hwuh-pieh-lieh, Kublai Khan, sometimes called Kiliuurm HimhpihUeh, founder 
of the Mongolian dynasty of China. He was the son of Tuli, fourth son of Tcmugin or 
Genghis Klian. 

iS» ^^ p_M ^^ Hwuh-lu-mu-sz', the city of Ormus, or Hormaz, in the Persian Gulf. 

jp] 5^ J\ H\\aii-ching-pah, the eight (or more) Mohammedan cities of Eastern or Chinese 
Turkestan, inhabited by Turkish and other tribes. The old tribe of the Kara Kitai, under 
the name of the Kara Kaitach, is foimd in these cities. 

^p 'l^ Hwui-fah, or Hseifan hotun in Khin, a small ganisoned post, lying on a branch of the 
Songari, S.S.E. of Kiiin ula, and under its jurisdiction. 

[p] 3^ Hwui-heh, the Uigurs, a Turkic tribe, from which the Usbeks are in part descended. 
They were connected with the Kau-cM, and foimded a kingdom in Trnfan, or Tangut, 
called Kaa-cliang. The word Uigur is applied to Tangut by the Mongolian historians. 
There were On-Uigurs and Tokus Uigurs. 

[pj [p] Hwui-hwui, or [p| -^, Hwui-tsz', the Persian Mohammedans, Uigurs, Tajiks, and 
other Turldc or Iranic followers of Mahomet, in and near China. The character is 
sometimes offensively -sratten /^[hJ. The earliest period of their arrival in any number in 
Cliina, was during the domination of the Liau, Kin and Yuen dynasties of Tungusic and 
Mongolic sovereigns. Their name is evidently derived from that of the Uigurs. Uigur 
is a tenn common to the MongoUan dialects, and signifies a stranger." The Chinese word 


hicm supports this meaning. 

[p] ^ Hwui-k'i, Turldc tribes, to the number of fifteen, descended from Hiung-nu. Diamonds, 
or the corimdum, are said to have come to China from these tribes. 

-^ ^g Hwui-k'i, a name of Kiangnan. 

[p] 1^ Hwui-kiang, a name of Chinese Turkestan. See Sin-kiang. 

|p] "1;^ Hwui-kuh, the Uigursv See Hvvui-heh. 

7^ -^ SK Hwiii-ning ching, one of the garrisons, N.E. of, and attached to Kuldja, or Hwiii- 

[p| "^ Hwui-pu, Mohammedan tribes. 

^ ^ nP Hwui-teh pu, or Khoits, a tribe of Mongols, living west of Si-ning, not far from 
the Azure Sea, and arranged under one standard. 

7^» Is, ^ Hwui-yuen ching, the capital city of Hi, in Lat 43' 36' N., and Long. 82° 30' 
E. TliLs city, calleel by the natives, Kara, and by the Russians, Guldschi or Kiddja, lies 
on the N". bank of the I'U river, which runs into Lake Balkash. It contains some 50,000 
people, and carries on considerable trade with adjacent districts. It was built by Kien- 
lung, but is now lost to China, with all the surrounding country. Coal is found in the 


^ I', the name of the barbarian tribes, " Great bowmen," on the E. of the Chmese kingdom 
of the beginning of the Chau dynasty. They occupied Shantimg, the coast-line to the S. of 
the Hwai river, and a great portion of what is now Kiangsu and Nganhwui. They merg- 
ed into the man of the S. All these tenus are used very promiscuously. The term I' was 
formerly applied offensively to foreigners, but Is now expressly forbidden in the treaties. 
The I' were described as having nine di\isionR. 

H & I-chang, a prefectural city in Hupeh, situated on the left bank of the Yangtsz', distant 
from Peking 3,540 li, and 360 geographical miles from Hankow. It is in Lat. 30° 49' N., 
and Long. 111° 10' 20" E. and has seven districts attached to it. It is sometimes called 
I-ling, and is nearly 1,100 statute miles from the mouth of the Yangtsz'. 

^ j'l'j I-chau, in Shmgking, department of Kinchau fu, 4Lat. 1° 30' N., and Long. 121° 20' E. 

^g / H 5^ I-chau chmg, a garrison subordhiate to Shmgking pun ching. It is near one of 
the gates in the Palisade, and is under the jurisdiction of the Manchu general at Moukden. 
This sub-department was formerly known as [^ j^, T'ung-chang. 

"^ J^ I'-chin, an old name of I-ching bien, ui Yangchau fu. See Chin chau. 

'^ ^^ flS §^ I-keh-chau ming, one of the six corps of Inner Mongolia, living on the Yellow 
Eiver, beyond the Gi'eat Wall, and N. of Kansuli. 

V^ )w) I-kieD> a name of Lohyang, in Honan, an ancient capital. 


"^ ^p I'-li, a name derived from the river I'-li, and given by the Chinese to an immense tract 
of countr}', nearly as large as Mongolia. It is inhabited by various tribes, and was divided 
into two lu, or circuits," by their relation to the T'ien Shan. The Peh Luh, or Northern 
Cii-ciut, comprised ancient Songaria, except Urumtsi and Barkul, attached to Kansuh. The 
Nan Lu, is called Eastern or Chinese Turkestan. The whole country is more or less 
under independent Mohammedan rule. 

^^ r^ I'-liiigj tte official name of 1-chang. There is a district city in Hunan, named I-chwg 
Men, to be carefully distinguished from I-chang fu, in Hupeh. 

"f^ iW [^ ■'■""^^ kwoh, an ancient name of Yingeshar. See Ying-kih-sha-rh. 

^^ yX, J^ 5j^ I'-ta-li-ya, a name given to Italy in Chinese books, as the coimtry of Matteo 

^^ ^^ 1m. I-'^vu-lu, an ancient name of HamU, a town in Barkul, on the confines of Kansuh. 
See Ha-mih. The country around this present settlement was held, dming the Han period, 
by military colonists. In the time of the After Wei it was first erected into the I-wu-kiun. 


^^ "^ Jau-fuh, Johore, a state in the S. of the Malayan Peniiisula. The chief town, on a 
small river, all of the same name, was formerly a place of considerable trade. 

^[^ [^ Jau kwoh, an ancient principality on the coast of Shantung. It is said in the Annals 
of the Eastern Han, to have belonged to j|p ^ ^, Lang-ya kiim, the present ^^ j)^ 
)f^, Ni-chau fu. 

f^ JfRj Jeh-ho, or Jehol, Warm Stream," the name of a stream flo"\ving from Chahar into 
the Gulf of Pehchihfi. There is a summer residence of the emperors of China near it, lying 
to the N.E. of Peking, or 170 miles due N. of Taku in Lat. 41° 4' N., and Long. 117° 50' 
E. See Pi-shii-shan-chwang. The district is in Cliing-teh fu. 

M fw yy\ Jeh-hoh-tseh, a place or district in Ulterior Thibet, possibly identical with Zhi- 
katse', or Teshu h'lumbu. See Chah-shih-lun-pu ching. 

P 1^ Jeh-nan, an ancient name of Cochin China or some other adjoining state. This is per- 
haps identical with Lin-yih, and the Siang kiun of the Ts in dynasty. 

P ^pt Jeh-pim, Nippon, or Japan, the " Dayspring." See Shm kwoh. This name dates, in 
Chinese writings, from the T ang period. 

P 2l$ (^ Jeh-pun kwoh, the " Country of the rising sun," the Chinese original of Sypangu, 
Marco Polo's name for Japan. But for the glowing account of Catlvay and Sypavgu, given 
by the Venetian traveller, Columbus would probably never have been urged to the dis- 
covery of the western world. 

-f^ ,^y| Jen-p ang, the name of certain tribes on the W. of ancient Cliina Proper. They 
inhabited the coimtry which is now included in the present sub-department of Mau chau 
(Secli uen)j with Kokonor, or Ts'ing-hai on its western border. 


ffii^ %B J^^"i^^' 0^ Yuen-yuen. This name is very variously written and sounded in Chinese 

works. It refers to a Turkic tribe of Hiung-nu, or Huns as they are sometimes called. 

Dm-ing the Ts in dynasty they made an inroad upon Cliina. They were foimerly called 

Jen-fei, or Jau-jen, according to some Chinese authors. 
^fO ^ W Ju-lai-fuh, the name of the Buddha of the present calpa, Tathagata. 
Jf tJ T^ ^ Ju-li-ya, the Japanese name for Syria, and the Nestorian faitli. The Syiians and 

the Nestorian faith were known to the Chinese by the name of Ta-tsin. 
$R imi fiS Ju-teh-ya, the name for Syria and Palestine (Judaja) in Cliinese and Japanese 

works. See T'ien chuh kwoh. This name seems much more homophonous than the >|p| 

3AC I^' Yu-tai kwoh of the Christian translators. 
5^ Juh, Ugro-tataric tribes, allied to the Kiang. See San miau. 
^^ Jimg, the mounted barbarians of the W. from whom came the Ts 'inites, founders of the 

Ts in dynasty. 
y^^ Jung, an ancient state, near the Kwanlun range in Thibet. SJmih, the reputed author of 

the invention of ^\Titing, was bom here, his mother being the daughter of its chief. 
7^ *W 5^ Jung-hiah ching, or Joimghia, a to\vn and district of Ulterior Thibet, between 

Glueding and Nielam, in the S. 
^C ■V^ Jimg-tih, tribes in Turfan, armed and mounted in chariots. This term was also loosely 

applied to all the barbarian tribes of Yii's time. 


Tu ^W ^^^ *^^^^ ching, a port in Shingking, possessing an excellent harbour, in Lat. 40" 
30' E., and Long. 122== 30' E. 

^»j* If^ K ai-fung fu, the chief city of Honan province, probably identical with the Chin 
of FnJi-hi, and fonnerly the capital of the state of Wei, and of the Avhole empire in A.D. 
960 under the Sung dynasty. Its name has been often changed, since the third century, 
but it has kept its present designation since the Ming period. Here in A.D. 1163, a Jewish 
synagogue was erected, by permission of the emperor Hiau-tsimg. 

^p K'ai-p'ing, or Shang-tu, one of the capitals of the Mongols in the 14th century. Lat. 
42° 25' N., and Long. 116° E. distant from Peking 700 U, and called Clemein fu by 
Marco Polo. It was the same place as Siuen-teh, or as Wan-ts iuen-tu of the next (Mmg) 

2j^ ^ Kai-p 'ing hlen, In Sliingking. It is a district town in Fimg-tW fu. 
j^ ^ Kai-yuen clilng, subordmate to Shingb'ng pun ching, in Lat. 42° 40' N., and 
Long. 123° 15' E. The JQ ^, Shangking of the Kin dynasty was near this place. 
1^ j,^ K'ai-yncn hien, a district town in Fimg-t'ien fu, in Shingldng. This was anciently 
called ^ 'j^. :^, Suh-sliin-ti, as a seat of the Nu-chin or 


j^ YHI Kaii-pu, or Canfu, the ancient port of HangcLow, visited by the Arabians in the Oth 
century, and by Marco Polo. It is now washed away, or submerged. It was situated in 
\Ahat is now called Hai-yen hien, and was at the mouth of the middle entrance of the 
Yangtsz', now closed. See Cha-pu. 

J^ Kang, Kham, or Khamba, a name given to the eastern part of Anterior Thibet, lying on 
the confines of Kokonor and Sechuen. See Keh-muh. 

^^ Kang, the name of the capital of the empire of the Shang period, answering to the present 
^ yy\, Kih chau, in P'ing-yang fu (Shansi). This Avas the fourth capital of these 
changeable monarchs. See Siang. 

^^jlC /li Kang chau, an old name of Kih chau (Shansi), identical with JyC, Kang, which see. 

I^J fw Kang-hoh, a branch of the head waters of the Indus, in Thibet, sometimes confoimded 
with the Ganges river, but properly called the Ganga, not Ounga. 

J^ ^ Kang-ku, the ancient name of Shoglman, or Sogdiana in Independent Tartary, in- 
habited by the Sacai, a wild race. It was called Kang kwoh during the T ang d}Tiasty, 
when, as well as in the Sui time, the people of the country were great rovers. 

^ ^ Kau-chang, the coimtry of the Uigurs, identified with Turfan, or Tangut. It was des- 
troyed A.D. 640. In the Nan Shi (^ _^), Li-yen shm, who died about A.D. 670, speaks 
of a plant growing in this country, which yields a fine thread called Peh-tieh ( Q i^ ), 
used in making soft and white cloth. See Ho-si and Ho-tien chmg. 

I^ ^. Kaii-che', the Ugro-tataric tribes from Avhom the Usbeks are descended. They gave 
their name to Kau-chang, the country of the Uigurs, with whom they amalgamated. In 
some cases the Uigurs would seem to be included under this term of Kau-che or Chui-che. 

1^ IxT 1^ Kau-fu kwoh, an extensive country to the S.W. of the Massagetse, the Indo-Scy- 
thians of western historians. 

fpj nij %j^ Kau-k u-li, a country in Liautung, now called Ku-yung Men. 

^^ ^ffc (^ Kau-Ii kwoh, the country of Corea, as formerly written. 

fSj /^ 1^ Kau-li kwoh, the name in common use for Corea, derived from that of a usurper, 
more especially employed in connection with the drug Ginseng. It is divided into eight 
provinces or taw. See Chau-sien and Kau slii. 

M i^jj |E[ Kau-peh tau, an extensive region in northeastern Chihli, beyond the Great Wall, 
with Tolonnor for its chief town. 

1^ Mi Kau shi, the name of a man who usui-ped the kingdom of Corea, dming the Han dy- 
nasty, and named it after himself. 

1^ ^'C IPH Kau-shih-tah, the Coromandel coast. 

liftj [1| J Kau-ting, the kingdom of Carakin of Marco Polo, near the present Yunnan. 

1^ ^p 4^ Kau-tsi-teh, Khaotchit, or Haochit, a tribe of Mongols, hving near the S.W, spur 

of the Inner Hing-ngan moimtains. 
:^ ^ Keh-kia, or Haldsa, "settlers" from Kia-ying chau, who arrived in the Canton pro- 
vince about the time of the Yuen dynasty. As they are called foreigners " in Kia-ying, 
they must have migrated from some other district. It is probable that this agricultural 
tribe came from Kiangsi province. Their dialect is related to the southern mandarin, but 


is apparently an older form of it, intermediate between the Pimti and the mandarin. 

R§ RJiJ fi\^ K eh-lah-chin, the Kartsin, or Kharachin, a tribe of Mongols, living W. of Tsak- 
har, jiist beyond the Great Wall. 

B§ R$lJ P§ fp K'eh-Iah-k'eh-sha, the Karakash, the SarilJiia of Moorcroft, a river in Khoten, 
which joins the Siijet. It is in the bed of this river, when nearly dried up, that nephrite, 
or jade, so highly esteemed by the Chinese, is found. The towTi of the same name Ls ten 
miles to the W. of Hchi, or Khoten, and near it there are numerous hot springs, with a 
temperature from 70^ to 130° Fah. Salt is abundant in the surrounding district. 

R^ P*'J \^y ^ ^ K'eh-lah-sha-rh ching, Kharashar, or Harashar, the principal town and 
garrison in the southern circuit of I'h. It Hes in Lat. 42° 15' N., and Long. 87° 05' E. 
near lake Bostang. The district coimected with it is very extensive. 

P-W ^ K'eh-muh, Kham. See Kang. 

P^ ^ P-W Keh-rh-k'eh, the Kalkas, the richest and, after the Tsakhars, the most numerous 
of the Mongol tribes, inhabiting Outer Mongolia. They are divided into four khanates, or 
eighty standards. Each of these Khans claims direct descent from Genghis Khan. 

P-§ Si P-§ ^L S ^ H fP ^ K'eh-rh-k eh-Chah-sah-keh Han-pii, the I^alkas of the 
Dzassaktii Khanate. This is the smallest of the four khanates, and lies S. of Uliasutai, 
reaching to Cobdo and Barkul, on the W. and S. There are many lakes in its limits. 

'^'^ H P-W $• E fP "ol^ Keh-rh-keh Che-chin Han-pu, the Kalkas of the Tsetsen Kha- 
nate, lying W. of Hurunpir, with the Tuchetu Khanate on the W., and extending from 
Russia on the JSI. to Inner Mongolia on the S. 

P-W ^ P-W "oh K'eh-rh-k eh pu, the Kalkas who inhabit parts of Kokonor. They are but 
few compared with those in Outer Mongolia. 

P^ Si P-^ ^ ^ %ti %M op K'eh-rh-k eh San-yin noh-yen pii, the Kalkas of San-noin. 
This khanate Hes W. of the Tuchetu Khanate, N". of Gobi, and S. of the tenitory of Uli- 
asutai and the Ulianghai tribes. 

n§ M P-$ i S" BI Vl" ^ K'eh-rh-k'eh Tu-sie'-tu Han-pu, the Kalkas of the Tuchetu 
Khanate. This khanate is central with respect to the other three Kalkan khanates of 
Outer Mongolia, and is the largest and most important of them all. The road from Kiakli- 
ia to Kalgan lies within its borders. 

?-§ W '^ ii ^^ K'eh-shih-kieh-rh chmg, Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, about 1,000 li 
W. from Aksu, situated on a river of the same name, in Lat. 39° 25' N., and Long. 74° 
E. This large town, the capital of the dominions of Yakoob Beg, the iiiler of Chinese 
Turkestan, contains nearly 100,000 inhabitants from all parts of Central Asia. From the 
meeting of four great caravan-roads at this point, it must always be a great commercial 
emporium. Eussia has invited the Khan of Kokand to attack Yakoob Beg, who by his 
defeat of the revolting Mahommedan tribes in 18C5, became master of what had been Chi- 
nese territory since A.D. 1750. Fort Vemoe, a large Russian military colony on the N. 
of the lake Issu-kul, is only 400 miles from Kashgar. The Kashgari, Kliokani, Khoteni 
and Yarkandi are dialects of the Turki language. See Su-leh kwoh. 

^ B§ ]^ J^ Keh-si-keh-tang, or Keckikten, a tribe of Mongols hving 570 li N JI. of Kau- 
peb tau. 


^ 4^ (X[ Ken-teh shan, the Kentei inoitntains, a spur of the northern branch of the Altai 
range, called by the Eussians, the Daourian mountains. Here the Sagalien river takes its 

]^ K'i, the Tartar bannermen. See Pali k'i 

^. jy\ k'i chau, a divosion of China, in Yii's time, including part of Shansi and Pehchihli, 
with the three departments of Chang-teh, Wei-hwui and Hwaiking in Honan, and the 
western portion of Shingking, or Liautung. These nine regions had been similarly named 
by Chuen hiuh. 

^^ ^M xKi Ki-chung jung, a " club-footed " tril^e from beyond Shamoh. 

^P Mb Ki-lung, or Kelung, a coaling-port in the N. of Formosa. 

j^ ^ O Ki'Pifi kwoh, Cophene, a part of Afghanistan, whose capital is said to be 12,200 H 
from Si-ngan fu. In some Chinese works this is said to be Samarcand. 

^^ ^ K'i-tan, or Kitai, the name of the Tungusic progenitors of the Liau dynasty, under 
the T ang, called also Sien-pi. They gave their name to Cliina as Kitai, Catai, or Ca- 
thay. Dr. Oppert asserts the Mongolic origin of these Kara Kitai. See Hiau-lo-ko- 

^ pT yfiH ® Kia-ku-lo kwoh, a country in India, the reputed source of several drugs. 

aJH ^m /T Kia-lan-tan, Kili-lan-tan, or Kalantan, a small state on the E. coast of the Malay 
Peninsula, tributary to Siam. It formerly sent joint tribute to China of ebony, cloves and 

5a)D flpg Q Kia-liu-pa, Batavia, or Java. See Koh-lah-pa. 

^JP ^ ■^ Kia-lo-pu, a place in the China Sea. The description points to the most southerly 
part of Cambodia. 

j/jn H^c TJtH Kia-po-lo, the birthplace of Sakyamimi, near Goruckpore. 

/JP llM\ wi /("M Kia-sliili-mi-lo, the countiy of Cashmere, the Capatyrus of the ancients. It 
is sometimes called KosMh-mli, unless tliis be the name of a comitiy to the north of 

/IP ^ ^ ® Kia-tu-la kwoh, a country placed N. of India, near Cashmere, and the re- 
puted source of the best assafcetida. 

^o "^ ^ Kia-yu-kwan, the most westerly gate in the Great Wall, at the end of it, between 
Ngansi fu and Suh-chau m Kansuh. K'i-pin kwoh is said to be 9,600 li beyond this pass. 

^ Kiang, Ugro-tataric tribes in Tangut. See Si-kiang and Juh. This name is given as a 
designation of the San viiau, which see. 

yr. ^ff Kiang-cheh, a name of Chekiang in the Mongolian period. 

/T. ^ Kiang-hu, Yeddo in Japan, the " Elver's door." 

JGC ff^ Kiang-hwai, a name of Nganhwui and Kiangnan. 

/X [If Kiang-kau, the "river's mouth," a name erroneously assigned in European maps to 
the river Yangtsz'. 

/X ^ ^ Kiang-min ching, a town and district in AjQterior Thibet, S.W. of H'lassa, and 
near T eshu lumbu. 

/X ^^ Eang-nan, a name loosely applied to the country around Nanking, or to Nganhwui, 


and Kiangsu. The name was originally given to all those departments of Nganhwuj and 

Kiang su, which lay S. of the Kiang, or Yangtsz' Eiver. There was also a division of tliis 

district into Kiangnan timg tau, answering to Kiangnan and Cheklang, and Kiangnan si 

tail, including much of Kiangsi, which may have derived its name from this old division. 
yX -^ Kiang-ning, Nanking, as named by the present dynasty. See Kin-ling. This 

name had formerly been given to Nanking by the Tang dynasty. 
JlC ^[j Kiang-peh, the name given to a district including all those departments of Nganhwnii 

and Kiangsu, lying N. of the Yang-tsz'-ldang. These departments were also distinguish- 
ed by the terms shrng and shia, according as they lay "up," or "down" the river. These 

still obtain among natives of the provinces. 
YSL n* Kiang-sheh, a name of the island of Tsung Ming, at the mouth of the Yangtsz'-kiang. 
^^ ^C Kiang-shwui, an ancient name of the Yangtsz'-kiang, or the Blackwater, in Kokonor or 

Y^ 3iM JK Kiang-tah ching, the town and district of Kiangta, in Thibet, between H'lassa 

and H'lari, 
jQl y^ ICiang-tung, the right bank of the river Yangtsz*, in its course tlirough Hupeh. This 

name is also applied to Suchau, as an abbreviation of Kiang-nan-timg-tau. 
^ / li n^ Kiau-chau fu, or Hue, the capital of Aimam, or Cochin China, situated on a small 

river of the same name. 
^C yjuu Kiau-chi, or ^ ,^|l, a cynical name given to the Coclain Cliinese, because like 

some of the Japanese, their men and women were said to bathe together publicly. See 

Nan-clii au-chi-ti. 
^i^ Y\ Kiau-men, the Mohammedan sect. See Hwui-hwuL 
W^ 1^ Kiau-nan, an old name of Kwangsi pvvince. 
f^ ^^ Kiau-tung, the present P'ing-tu chau in Shantung province. 
/TP /E, 5W Kieh-ting ching, Ghieding, or Dingghie, a town and district of Ulterior Thibet, 

S. of Teshu-hl'umbu. 
^g J^ Kien-kang, the name of Nanking, as the capital of the Eastern Tsin dynasty, which 

altered the old name of Kien-yeh, gi\'en to Nanking by the Wu djTiasty. 
^t ® ^\Q^ kwoh, the kingdom of Fulden, the Chmka of Marco Polo. See Min. 
^^ [^ Kien-ling, an old name of Kweilin fu (Kwangsi). 

^^ ^P Kien-na, a country to the S.W. of China, visited by Ta Hi-tung, in A.D. 674. 
^J 1^ Kien-nan, a name of one of the large divisions of China in the T ang time, called tau. 

It included parts of Secb uen and Kweichau, and was divided into east and west portions. 
^1^ Pf K'ien-shau, the "Black-heads," a name ^ven to ihe Chinese by CJd Hioang Tt, jfrom 

their black turbans. 
^^ j^ K'ien-ti, a name of Kweichau province. Tliis is said to be the country near '^^ 'J^, 

Man-fang, the neighbourhood of the Man-tsz'. See Ta-wan-kuh-loh. 
^ JlL ^ K'ien-t'u-lo, Candahar, in Afghanistan. 
^& ^^ Kien-yeh, a name of the city of Nanking, as the later capital of the empire of the 

rulers of Wu. See King-ling. Chinese writers refer this name to Shaug-yuen hien, the 


premier district of Kiang-ning fu (Kiangsu). See Lung-shau-slian. 

^ 'j^ K'ili-fub, a division of the Sien-pi, living to the W. of Shensi of the present time. 

^ jnfi Kih-lin, Kirin, or Ghirin, a large comitry to the N.E. of Shingking, bordering on the 
Sea of Japan, and the Gulf of Taitary. It is bounded on the N. by the Hin// Ngan Ling, 
or Daomian Mountaias, E. and N.E. by the ocean, S.E. by Corea, and the Palisade 
which divides it from Shingking, and W. by Mongoha and Tsitsihar. It is divided into 
three ting departments, namely, Kirin ula, Petune ula, and Changch un. This extensive 
region is thinly peopled by Manchus, who live by fishing and hunting. 

^ (^ Kih-kwoh, a country to the S. of Fu-nan, whose people, the Hwan-t'ien, usurped the 
Kingdom of Fu-nan. 

O W ^ Kih-lin ching, Khin ula, the principal town of Kirin, in Lat. 43° 45' K, and 
Long. 26'' 25' E. It is situated on the Songari river, and is a poor-looking place for the 
capital of a province, consisting of a few houses for the officers and staff, and a collection 
of huts. 
^^ ^ ^ ^ Kih-lin li-sz' ting, Kirin ula hotun, the name of the commandery of Kirin, 

indicating that it has the control of the whole pro\Tnce. 
O S- r I Kih-li-men, the Carimon islands, a little to the W. of Java, infested by Malay 

"^ •jl^ Kih-pi, Kibi, the reputed inventor of the Japanese Katakana character. He visited 

Cliina in A.D. 733. See Hung-fah. 
'-^ 7^^ Kih-tsah, Quedah near Penang, in the Malay peninsula. 
-4^ j\\ T^ Kin-chau ching, in Shingking, subordinate to the head garrison, is the port of 

Moukden, and distant from it 15 leagues. The harbour is rapidly silting up. 
^^ / rl n^ Kin-chau fu, a department in Shmgking, lying along the gulf of Liautung. It 

is divided into two chau districts, Ningyuen and /', and two Men districts, Kin and Kicang- 

ning, each having a small garrisoned town. See Liau-si. 
^^ "^ Kin-ch i, Laos tribes near the Lan-t&.mg river, who gilded their teeth. Their country 

was the Zardandan of Marco Polo. 
-^^ ) 1 1 Kin chuen, the name of a river lising in Kokonor, and of a district for which see Ta 

Kin chuen. 
^% /^ Km hien, a district of Kin-chau fu in Shingking. The town is in Lat. 41" 06'. N"., 

and Long. 121^ 18' E. 
^g [^ Kin-ling, the "Golden mounds, " one of the oldest names of Nanking. It had been 

called Moll-ling by T sin Chi-hwang. Little remains of the beauty with which Htinguni 

the founder of the Ming dynasty adorned his capital, but some colossal statues which orna- 
mented the unperial mausolea. 
"4^ r I Kin-men, the island of Quemoy, a little to the E. of Amoy island. 
•^ [_L[ Kin-shan, the Altai mountains, running between Lat. 50° and 52° 30' N. This 

name Golden mountain " has been given to California. The emperor of the Kin Tartars 

was called Altan Khan, the Golden Khan. 
■gg^ *^ JGQ Kin-sha-kiang, the name of the Upper Yang-tsz' before its junction with the 


Min river. The department of Ting-cliau fu in Fukien, was formerly called Kin-slia. 

•^ >^ Kin-t'ai, an old name of Pehchilili province. 

■^ -f^ jig Kin-tsz' kwoh, situated on the E. of Kingpo fn, and said to have yielded tin in 
fonner days. 

^J ^I'j^j King-chan, the province of Yii corresponding to ITu-lM-ang of later date, very nearly. 

^ ^Q, King-chau, a name of Si-ngan fu in Shensi, under the Han. See King chau fii. 

-M ^Ct W King-ctau fu, an old name of Si-ngan fu, in Shensi, under the Kin sovereigns in 
A.D. 1142. It vv^as also known as Chang-ngan and Hien-yang. 

^ W^ ^L. Khag-ki-tau, the name of the capital, and of the metropohtan tav, or province, of 
Corea. The first character was attempted to be changed by the Chinese, as they claimed 
that there could be but one King, the residence of the Suzeram. This is aLso one of the 
names of the metropolitan district of Peking, as one of the 15 tau into wliich the empire 
was divided in the reign of Tuen-tsung of the Tang dynasty. This division is still retained 
in the Tsln Shin Shu, the ' Eed Book," issued regularly as an official Coiut Guide. 

^^ W King-Ma, the Gimga, the Ganges of India. See Hang ho. 

^J yX Kmg kiang, the Ta Kiang or Yangtsz', from King-ho lean, the point of junction 
of the stream which is the outlet of the T ung-ting lake, with the main stream (Upper 
Yangtsz'), as far as the city of King-chau fa. 

^^ ^^ King kiau, the " illustrious rehgion," of the Nestorians. See T'ien-chuh kiau. 

^ gf|5 King-sz', or Kinsai, the name of Hangclyau, as the capital of the Sung dynasty, hi 
the time of Marco Polo. The Chinese charactei-s denote the capital of the empire, as the 
residence of the sovereign, wherever that may be. Peking is accordingly so named upon 
native maps and in ofiicial books. See Shau-shan or Shau-shen. 

J^ W$C 5^ King-shu clung, the chief town of the intendancy of Kurkara usu. 

^ ^^ King-t'ang, or ^ ipqg ^^, King-t'i-t ang, the Chinese Postmaster General in Pe- 
king, under the Board of War. There are two such ofllcers in each province, called -^ 
vE ^^' Sang-t'i-t'ang, regulating roads and bunds. 

"^ f^ i|l^ King-teh-chin, the chief town of the "Potteries" in Kiangsi, and one of the five 
great marts of China. See Wu-chin. 

.^ ^5 King-tu, Kioto, or Miaco, the residential city of the Mikado of Japan. 

yL /!i Kiu-chau, the " Nine regions " of China, as divided, or adopted from Chxien Hiuh, by 
the Great Yii. The term is still used in composition. These regions or provmces had 
been increased to twelve by Shim. 

yij J^ Kiu-chin, or Kowchin (Cochin ?), a name of Annam and Cambodia, as foniiing part 
of China. See Siang kiun. There is a _7L ^ UJ, in Hanyang hien, opposite to the 
Ta Kiun Shan, near the Yangtsz' river. 

yl^ yX Kiu-kiang. This name was anciently applied to the T'ungting lake in Hunan, but is 
now the name of one of the treaty ports, Kiukiang/u. 

^^ ^^ Kiu-ldau, the ancient faith, " or the Jewish religion. See Tau-kin-kiau. 
yL 'hII Kiu-lung, the sub-district of Kowloong, opposite Hongkong, which has been partly 
ceded to the British crown. 


yL hII yX Kiu-hmg kiang, the Meikong or Camboja river. See Nan-chang kiang. 

Jl^ ^^ Kiu-seh, the nine frontier-forts of the old empire of China, to which Ts 'in Chi-hwang 
added anotlier the ^ ^^ Tsz'-seh or "Red rampart, " the Great Wall of China. These 
nine defences were as follows, — y^ ^^, Tai-fan (Shansi), — 'ptj J^, Ku-chu, at Jj^ f^, 
Yen-men, the JX^ y\\, Tai-chaii (Shansi) of the present day, — '/^^ |)/B^, Min-ngeh, and 
wt fJX' Hiau-fan, in ;;^ ;^, Hung-nung, a name of the present (^ ^j^, Shen-chaii 
(Honan), — ^J pC King-yuen and ^ J^ Fang-ching in 5^, T su, or Hukwang, — ^ 
P#C , Tsing-ying, in Ta-t'ung fu (Shansi), — ^ j^ Ku-ynng, in Siuen-hua fa. (Pehchihli), 
and ^ ^[j^ Ling-tsz' in Liau-si (Shingking). This word ^, Seh was formerly pro- 
nounced as ^^, Sai, a conunon Mohammedan surname, and has the meaning of ^^, 
Chai, a stockade, or mihtary encampment. 

yt* j^- Khi-}ing, a race of wizened cretins, dwelling in mountainous regions beyond the desert 
of Gobi. Their goitres are distinctly referred by Chinese writers to the character of the 
Avater of the district. See Wu-shan-kiah. 

'iH -^ Kiuen-tuh, a name of India and Syria. See T'ien-tuh. 

i^ y*pj Kiung-chau, the northern part of the island of Hainan. 

"^ Ko-lau, the name and watchword of a secret society of disbanded soldiers in Hunan 

and other provinces. 

0^ R^'J Gi Koh-lah-pa, Batavia, or the whole island of Java, as it is usually known- to the 
Chinese, from the native name Kalapa, for the cocoanut. They often write it without the 
two first characters, as Pa (Pq). 

^ Ws. Koh-lo, the Ghiojv, or the " Golden race," the surname of the Manchu reigning family. 
See Ta Kin. The imperial kindred is spoken of as the Tsung-shih Icoh-lo. They were also 
distinguished by their single-peaked shoes, now worn by oflBcials generally. 

?H ^ ^^ Koh-rh-keh, the Ghoorkas of Kepaul. See Ni-p'o-lo. 

fR W M ^ Koh-rh-lo-sz', a tribe of Mongols, the Khorlos, on the N.W. of Shingking. 

00 ?M ^ W ^ \M Koh-tah-sii-tsi-lau shan, a lofty peak in Lat. 35° N., and Long. 95° 
E. near which the Alotan ho, a soiurce of the Yellow River, rises. 

3X1 ^^ Ko-pih, or ~/^ ji^ ^^, Ta Kopih, the Great Desert of Cobi or Gobi, called also 
Shamo/i, Hanhai and Tciklan Makan. It extends from the eastern frontier of Mongolia, 
southwestward to the further frontier of Turkestan, to -within six miles of Ilchi, the chief 
toAvn of Khoten. It thus comprises some twenty-three degrees of longitude in length, and 
from three to ten degrees of latitude in breadth, being about 2,100 miles in its greatest 
length. In some places it is arable. Some idea may be formed of the terror with which 
this Sea of Sand," with its vast billows of shifting sands is regarded, by the legend that 
in one of the storms, 360 cities were all buried in the space of twenty-four hours. Gold 
coins of great weight, and other articles, are said to have been found in certain lofty 
hillocks, on the edge of the desert. This attests to the wealth of the surrounding country, 
of which Herodotus in his account of the desert in which gold dust was thrown up by ants, 
seems to have had some notion. See Liu-sha, and Lo-to-keh cliing. 

W( 'W ^5W Ko-pu-to cliing, Kliobdo, or Cobdo, Hes in the N.W. of Mongolia. It is 


bounded N. and W. by Eiissia, N.E. by Ulianghai, S.E. by the Dzassaktu Khanate, S. 
by Barkul, a nominal part of Kansiih, and W. by Tarbagatai. Cobdo compiises eleven 
tribes of Kalkas, divided into thirty-one standards, ganisoned by the amban, who resides at 
a city of the same name. The amban is subordinate to the resident at Uliasiitai. The 
gariTSoned city is situated on a branch of the river of the same name, which runs kito one 
of the many lakes of this province. It carries on some trade with Urga, and is situated 
in Lat 47= 30' K, and Long. 85° 30' E. 

^T ^ v\^ Ko-rh-chin, the Kortchins, a large tribe of Mongols occupjnng the country S. and 
W. of the valley of the river Nonni, in the province of Tsitsihar, on the confines of Kirin. 
Tin is brought from then- territory. 

/^ S^ 5W Ku-che ching, foiraerly the name of a district state, but now usually applied to a 
large gan-isoned towTi, called the gate of Chinese, or Eastern Tm-kestan. It lies about 100 
miles W. of Bukm-, in Lat. 41° 37' N., and Long. 82" 55' E. on the W. of Harashar, at 
the S. of the T ien Shan. The smrounding district is cultivated, and some trade in linen, 
sal ammoniac, ciimabar, quicksilver, copper, sulphur and saltpetre is carried on. See Kwei- 
tsz' kwoh. 

~^ ^^ Ku-keh, Guge, a part of N ari, in Thibet, consisting of two valleys. 

^ )^ Ku-kiang, Palembang, fonnerly an independent kingdom of Sumatra, and having a 
large trade in pepper and tin from the island of Banca. It is sometimes identified with 
San-fuh-tsi. The name, with a change of the first character, is sometimes given to Jam- 
bi, a little N. of Palembang. 

■^ nT ^ ^ K'u-ko-noh-rh, Koko nor, the "Blue lake" country. See T'sing hai. 

t^ ^^ Ki^i-lan, the town of Coulan, or Qiulon, the capital of the state of Tra^'ancore, in Lat. 
8^ 55' K, and Long. 76° 45' E. 

gX i^ wj^ Ku-lang-su, the island of Kulangsu, near Amoy. 

P^ 1% Ku-leh, the Koran. 

~j^ Ip. Ku-li, Calicut, or Ciilh, or Calliana in Malabar, a vast centre of commerce in ancient 
time, and the port of departure for travellers to and from China. This may have been the 
Cattigara of Ptolemy, which has been variously referred to Canton or Cambodia. 

"pT iM (^ Ku-li kwoh, the country of Malabar. A place called Thmih-lu-ma, or Hwuh-livmu, 
has been variously referred to this coast, to Quilon, and to Honnaz in the Persian Gulf. 

cT S. ^BE ^* Ku-H-pan-tsuh, Masulipatam, a port in the Madras Presidency, one of the best 
harbours on the whole coast. It formed a part of the first acquisition of extensive territory 
from the Nizam, by the East India Company. The fame of its chintzes and calicoes had 
created a demand in Persia and Chuia, to which latter country it was brought as tribute, 
more especially from Siam. The fame of the goods, and some of the names of the fabrics 
of the East India Company were hereditarily derived from these cotton goods brought from 
Siam, Malacca and other places. 

/^ iw K'u-lun, Kurun, or Urga, a large town in the Tuchetu Khanate, where the b'gh-priest, 
called KuJculdu risides, ruhng over the Kalkas of Mongolia. It lies in Lat. 48° 20' N., and 
Long. 107° 30' E. on the Tola river, a branch of tlie Selenga, and is one of the stations of 


Grant's Trans-Mongolian Telegraph. 

W^ JiE Kn-luh, a prefecture of Ts 'in Chi-hwang, in Pehchihli, answering to a part of Shun- 
teh fa, still bearing this name. 

~^ 1^ ^J Ku-ma-lah, Trincomalee in Ceylon. This may refer to Coulan in Travancore, 
which rejoices in the profusion of some eight or ten aHases ia various languages. 

jtp ^ ^ Ku-meh kwoh, a place on the borders of Khoten. 

"^ :((^ P Ku-peh k'au, a pass m the Great Wall, in Lat. 40° 43' N. 

j^ 1^ P-W R^'J ^^ ^^ ^w Ku-rh-k'eh-lah Wu-su ching, or the garrison of Kurkara vm. 
Tliis is a small district of I'li, The town of the same name is now called King-shu ching. 
It ranks as a garrisoned town next to Kuldsha, and lies N.E. from it, on the river Kur, 
and on the road between Kuldsha and Urumtsi. See King-shu ching. 

^K ^^ S Ku-sau kwoh, the kingdom of Fahan, 500 U W. of the Blue Mountams. Ku- 
sau was the name of a mountain, and of a tribe of the Si-jung mentioned in the " Tribute 

"^ '/-l|3j Ku-tien, an official name of the province of Yunnan. Se Tien kwoh. 

Jj) Kung, the name of a tribe of V on the S.W. of ancient China, now perpetuated in the 
name of a chau in Sech uen. 

-^ Jj Kung-fang, a title of the Shiogoon of Japan, sometimes applied to the Mikado. See 
T ai kwan, and Tsiang Kiim. 

«* pT "^ Kung-kiT t'au, the largest of the Madjicosima group of Islands. 

•^ ^^ 5W Kung-shin ching, in I'li, a garrisoned town near the river I'li, situated W. of 
Hwmyuen ching, to which it is subordinate. 

/^ W| Kvmg Sz', the East India Company's factory at Canton. Traces of this name are 
still met with in all parts of Chum. The best cloth and the best opium are stiU called by 
their name. 

^5> i^ ~E Kung-ts'in wang, a common name of Prince Kung.- See Ho-shih-kung-wang. 
There are four orders of Princes in the Tartar court. 1st, ^^ v^ ^§, ^£, Ho-sUh-tsin- 
vxxng, 2nd, ^^ ^, Kiim-vxing, 3rd, ^ ^\, Pd-leh, and 4th, ^ -f', Pei-tsz\ See 
Ho-shih-kung-t sin-wang. 

^ Kwan, the " Passes," or barriers, situated between Honan and Shensi, and in the latter pro- 
vince, and rendered famous in Chinese history as the " doors of the empire." See Han-kuh 
kwan and Kwan-chung. 

m^ RS Kwan chah, the Barrier at Macao, built by the Chinese in 1573 to mark off the Por- 
tuguese territory. 

^ Fp Kwan-chung, the name of part of the present province of Shensi, in the Ts 'in tune, 
and of the ancient capital of the Western Han djTiasty. There were four ^, at the 
foiu- points of the compass, namely ^ ^ j^ ^ ^, ^ ^ llj^ ^ "^ ^, ^ 

^^.M^it^W^- See Kwan-si. 

^ p*9 Kwan-lui, the name of Kwan-chung, as altered by the T ang dynasty. 

^^ >^ Kwan-lun, a range of mountains rendered famous in Chinese histoiy and legend, se- 
parating Thibet from Chinese Tiu-kestan and the desert of Gobi. It starts from the 


Pushtikur knot, in Lat. 36° N. and runs along easterly, nearly parallel between that and 
the 35th degi-ee. At the 92nd degree of Long. E., in the middle of its course, it divides into 
two ranges, one declining to the S.E., the Bayenkara, or the Snowy Mountains, and unites 
with the Yun Ling, or Cloudy Mountains." The other branch bends northerly, and under 
the various names of Kilien Shan, In Shan and Ala shan, passes through Kansuh and 
Shensi to join the Imier Hing-ngan range. The Kwan-lun range is the Olympus of China, 
and the supposed source of its Fungshwui. 

^ -TO* 'W ^\ Kwan-lun-ts'ang-sz', a people in Thibet, incorrectly described by Ee'musat as 
negroes. See Kwan-tun. 

^ ® Kwan-si, the country to the W. of Shensi, answering to Lung-si, in Kansuh. Kwan- 
si-tau included part of Shensi province. See Kwan-chung and Kwan-tung. 

^^ ^ ^a K'wan-tai lu, " Petticoat-string path," the Chinese vulgar name for the city of Vic- 
toria, Hong-kong. See Hiang-kiang. 

1^ "^^ Kwan-t'i, the name of a place in Chihli, where the beginning is said to have been 
made to drain off the waters of the deluge by Kuxin, the father of the Great Yii. His 
labours have been much underrated. See Pung-lai. 

g. y^ Kwan-tun, the island of Pulo Condor. This is sometimes written Kwan-lun. 

y^ ra Kwan-t'ung, the " Mingled river," the name of the Sagalien river after its junction with 
the Songari. See Heh-lung kiang. 

^^ "^ Kwan-tung, the country of Liautung, to the N. of China Proper, producing the best 
ginseng, named after it. There is a kind of ginseng produced in Kwan-si, a part of 
Shensi. Ginseng dealers use both Kwan-tung and Kwan-si on their signboards. 

)§ / ri )f^ Kwang-chau fu, the correct description of the provincial and departmental city of 
Canton. There is great probability in favour of this being the Cattigara of Ptolemy. 

)§ ^lH "j^ Kwang-jin ching, a garrisoned town lying N.W. of Hwuiyuen ching, near the 
Kirghis frontier. 

J^ ^^ ^ffi Kwang-ning ching, a garrison subordinate to Shingking pun ching. 

]§ -^ /^ Kwang-ning hien, a district in Kin-chau fu, in Lat. 41° 40' N., and Long. 122° 
E. This town and that of I-chau are the first towns in Shingking, on entering, on the 
west the province, from Mongoha. The northern "guardian hill," the ^ fit f^ [If, 
I-wu-lu-shan, was situated in this district. See Wu chin. 

69 ~W Kwei-fang, or Kwei-fang kwoh, the country of the Hiung-nu, as named in the records 
of the Yin, or Shang dynasty. The opprobrious name Yang-kwei-tsz' is probably derived 
from this name applied to these Hunnish tribes. 

1^ •^ ^^ Kwei-hwa ching, a town on the borders of Shansi, the residence of a Tu-tung, or 
Adjutant-General over the tribe of Toumets. 

jj^ jj^ Kwei-lin, a name vised in the time of Ts 'in Chi-hwang for the re^on of Kwangsi. It 
is now applied to the premier fd and provincial capital of Kwangsi. This Kwei-lin fu, was 
once called ^ [^ Kien-ling. 

1^ ^^ ^^ Kwei-ehu ching, or Kuku kotu, the " Blue city," a town in Sh msi, the residence 
of a Ping-pei-tau, or oflBcer connected with the control of the Toumets. 


1^ Kwei-tau, a name for Manilla, as used by Chinese in the Straits. One of the Kypong 
islands, near the entrance of the Canton river is also known by this name. 
y</i^ j ig Kwei-tsz' kwoh, Kuche, or Koutche, a district and town in Chinese Turkestan, 
formerly an independent state. See Ku-che ching. 

1^ Kwei-tsing, Cochin in South India. Ko-chih has been given as a name of this place 
in older wTilings. 

^ -^ Kwoh-sing-ye, tlie " Lord of the country's families," a name said by Von Siebold 
' to be the original of Koxinga, or Kosenya, the piratical ruler of Foimosa. See Ching 


<PiL J& 5% ^^-^^ cliing, H'lari, a town in the northern part of Anterior Thibet, bordering on 
Kokonor, with a district connected with it. 

-pfe yj)|C ^S La-lin ching, Larin ula, a gaiTison in the coromandery of Petime, in Kiriru It 
lies on the Songari river, between the town of Petune and Altchucu, and has attracted 
some trade. 

0\ ^ JH Lah-ma-miau, or Dolondo, in Lat. 42° 40' K, and Long. 115° 20' E., a large city 
and mart on the plains of Mongolia. 

"jjp^ ^ La-sah, the capital of Thibet, is situated on the Dzangtsu river, about 12 leagues from 
its jimction mth the Yaru-tsangbu, m Lat. 29^ 30' N., and Long. 91° 40' E. It is the 
largest town in this part of Asia, and is famous as the headquarters of the lamas. See 

"jjfll ^^ ^^ La-tah-keh, Ladak, or Leh, sometimes called Mar-yid, a wool-producing country, 
bounded N. by the " Onion mountains," E. by Eodok and Gardok, S. and S.W. by the 
Himalayas, separating it from Caslamere, and N.W. by Beltistan, or little Thibet. The 
Indus flows through this independent country, which has preserved its separate existence 
by the peaceful and propitiatory temper of its princes, who send annual presents to adjoin- 
ing nilers, as a kind of friendly acknowledgment of the benefits of the caravan trade pass- 
ing tlu-ough this territory. Leh, the capital, is in Lat. 44° 10' N., and Long. 77° 45' E. 

^^ "J S Lai-tsz' kwoh, a district near the Shantung promontoiy, now called Teng-chau fu. 
This Teng-chau, is to be distinguished from Timg-chau in Chihli, on the line of the cara- 
van route from Kalgan, by Dunba to Tientsin, prescribed in the Kusso-Chinese treaty. 

_^ '^ Lan-fang, Lampong in Sumatra. 

^tt T0 [fil "X" Lan-mau-hwoi-tsz', the " blue-cap-hwui tsz'," a name applied to the Jews, who 
came to China in greatest number from Persia. From this coimtry, in part, came the first 
Mahommedans, who were Tiurks, or Kisilbash, wearing the red fez-cap. 

1^ ^p Lan-mo, Kama in India. 


^^ 5^ Lang-ya, or ^^ ^' '\^, Lang-ya-siu, the island or islands of Linga, or Lingon 
between Borneo and Sumatia. See Mencius, Book I. part 11. chap. IV. Legge's ed: 
This was the name of one of Ts in Clii-hwang's forty prefectures or principalities. See 
Jau kwoh. 

y^ '^3 Lau-chwa, the Laos tribes who live between Yunnan, Annam, and Siam. 

^g ^ Lau-lan, the name given to Shen-shen, before the Han d}"nasty. 

• ^l -jp* Lau-tsz', the Laos and Shan tribes tributary to the adjacent states of Burmah, Slam 
and Annam. They are sometimes called itih-lau. See Ye-lang. 

[ I [ Lau-wan-shan, the largest of the Ladrone Islands. 

^i ^f Li-han, or Li-chien, the name of a country known to the Chinese in the Han period, 

and placed by them to the W. of the Western Sea," It may have been the Latin, or 

Eoman empire. See Ta-tsin. 
3^ ^^ ^?C Li-fan-yuen, the Colonial or Foreign office in Peking. See T'sung-li-ya-men. 
fpL, i^ Li-ma, or Bima, the Malay kingdom in the E. part of the island of Sumbawa. It for- 
merly sent much sandal-wood and sapan-wood to China. 
^1] >^ ^ Li-ma-tuh, the Chinese name of Matteo Kicci, who was in China from 1582 

to 1610. 
-^. 3K ^^ Li-mau-jan, the Dyaks of Bomea 

/Mi 5c I^'j^^^gj ^ frontier state in the N. of China, in the time of the Tsin dynasty. 
J^ ^i Li-t'ang, or Lithang, a town of some importance in Thibet. 
1^ |I|JSJ li-t'ung, the Taic aborigines of Hainan and the adjacent mainland. 
^Jj y^ 55 Li-wei-ya, Libya, or Africa. 
^^ ji^ Liang chau, a name of Kai-fung fii in Honan, during the Tung Wei rule. This is also 

the name of one of Yii's provinces, including Sech uen, with pai-ts of Kansuli, Shensi, Hupeh, 

and perhaps of Kweichau. 
^^ -^ jj^ Liang-kung-fu, the British Legation in Peking, formerly the palace of the Duke 

Liang, as the name implies. 
^R I^RJ* Liau ho, the river which drains the large area of the eastern half of the province of 

Shingking, and rims into the gulf of the same name. It is said to be not now navigable 

for large vessels much beyond Newchwang. As one of the six streams," it was ancientr 

ly called ^ :^. 
^^ ^ Liau-si, an old name of the time of Ts 'in Chi-hwang, applied to what is now Kin-chau 

fu in Shingking, and Chang-li hien in Pehchihli. 
^^ -f' Liau-tsz', the Laos tribes. See Lau-tsz'. 
^^ ^^ Liau-tung, or Shingking, one of Ts'in Chi-hwang's prefectures, named after the Liau 

river. It comprised, before the Manchu conquest, only that part near the gulf, and a part 

of the present Pehchihli. 
^^ ^ JW Liau-y^'ng chau, in Shingking, a district of Fung-t'ien fu, m Lat. 41° 10' N., 

and Long. 123^ 27' E. Liau-yang was the name of one of the 12 provinces of China, 

under the Yuen dynasty. 
^£ 1^ ^£ Liau-yang ching, in Shingking, subordinate to the bead garrison. 


3pj)jC ^ Lin kvfoh, a country in Central Asia, 9,000 It from Singan fu, yielding excellent peais. 
P^ ^' Lin-ugan, a name of Hangchow in Chekiang, an old capital of Cb'na. To tliis place 
of rest came Kau-tsung of the Nan Sung dynasty, in A.D, 1129, and many of the same 
line made it their residence. See King-sz'. 

>pjC E2/ Lin-yih, a place said to be identical with Jeh-nan and Chen-ching, from which much 
gold and silver were formerly brought to China. Hwan-yang is said to be another name of 
tliis Cambodian kingdom. In some Chinese maps Lin-yih is placed to the W. of Chen-ching. 

^^ ^^ Ling-nan, the country S. of the Meiling, or as they are sometimes called, the Great 
Stack mountains, forming one of the 15 tau of the T ang dynasty, and answeiing to the 
Kwang-nan of the Sung dynasty. This was divided into two lu, Kwang-nan-si and 
Kwang-nan-timg, the origin of the present provinces of Kwang-si and Kwang-tung. 

^ 'Yf Ling-ting, the island of Lintin, or the " Orphan," Ijing to the W.N.W. of Urms- 
ton Bay. 

J^ 35j^ 1^ Liu-kiu kwoh, the tributary state of Luchu, or Lewchew ("Pendent globes"). 
These. islands formerly composed three petty kingdoms, called Chmig Shan (Pp [Jj), Shan- 
nan, ([Jj ^^), and Shan-peh, ([Jj ^j^), whose chiefs sent tribute to Hung-wu of the 
Ming. Chu K'wan, an officer of the Siii emperor Ta Nieh, visited the country. Some 
confusion exists between this country and Borneo, in Chinese books. See Shau-ni. 

)/^ *j[J? Liu-sha, the desert of Gobi. See Sha-moh. 

/ji^ ^IJ (^ Lo-chah kwoh, a coimtry of red-headed black savages, between Lin-yih and Siam, 
It was visited by the Cliinese embassy from the Sui emperor, Ta Nieh, to the king of Siam. 

•jp^ [^ Lo kwoh, a coimtry of unclad savages in the W., fearless of wild beasts. 

^g ^ y^ ^ Lo-pu-nau-rh, the modem name of Lake Lop Nor. This lake lies on the edge 
of a desert, in an uninhabited region. Into it, in Long. 38° E., after a course of some 1,400 
mUes, there runs the largest inland river in the world, the Tarim. See Pu-chang hai. 

5^ ^^ Lo-so, the name of a city in Turfan. 

^S ^ ^ 5W Lo-to-keh ching, the town of Eodok in Nari, on the borders of Thibet, a Httle 
to the S.E. of Ladak. Under the Ming dynasty it was a small independent state. To the 
E. of this town, with its fort suixounded by four monasteries and 150 houses, commences 
the Aksaichin, or White desert of China," which runs parallel to the great desert of Gobi. 

^^ ^K- Loh-lang, a tributary state of the Han dynasty, in all probability the same as Corea or 
Sin-lo. See next. 

^^ ^M. '/^ Loh-lang hai, the sea between the coast of Chekiang and the islands of Japan, 
in which Chinese geographers place Japan. This name was also applied to the YeUo^v Sea, 
after the name of Corea. 

m ^ Loh-yang, the capital of China mider the Eastern Han, A.D. 25. It is now a district 
town in Honan fu in the province of Honan. See I-kien. It is assei"ted by Biot, that the 
old city was somewhat to the W. of the present district town. See Lung-shau-shan. 

'j jM. /Jl Lu kiang, a name of the Yangtsz' Kiang, in its upper part, so called from one of its 
tributaries in Sech'uen. See Kin-sha kiang. 

^^ /X Lu kiang, or "^ p" , Lu-men, or ^^ ^ Lu-tau, are names used in Chinese poe- 


tical compositions for the island of Amoy, and its port. These names are derived fix)m 
that of the ^ ^, Lu-sz*, or White Egret (Herodias euophotes), which annually frequents 
the islands of Amoy, Quemoy and the large number of islets of the bay. Tliis bird 
with perhaps other species, is used in the decorations of ci\-il officers, the Q ^^ peh 
!u being the distinctive badge of the sixth ci^il rank. The flesh of this bird is recom- 
mended in the Pen T sau as very nourishing. This Lu-Mang is to be carefully distinguished 
from the next, which see. 

j^ /H Lu kiang, the Irawaddy river (Pauthier). See Nu kiang. Amoy is sometimes spoken 
of as Lu-kiang, frc«n the number of egrets to be seen on the island. 

^ k3 5S Lu-si-ya, tiie Japanese term for Russia. See Ngo-lo^. 

Q -^^ Lu-sung, Lucon or Luconia, the Philippine Islands. See Siau-lu^ang. 

-^ g^ Lu-chau, the countiy in the present province of Yunnan, called Caraian by Marco Polo. 
This name strictly applies to the six leaders of these mountain tribes, supposed to be Ka- 
rens or Wu-man. See Yueh-sih-chau. . 

^g ^ Luh-lai, the Laos tribes of the dry and woody regions of the S. The first character is 
perhaps a mistake for (^, Luh. The Lo-lo tribes in Yunnan spoken of by Duhalde, may 
perhaps be indicated by these characters. See also Sien-lo. 

y^ LuL For words commencing with this character, see Nui, the more correct word. 

■^g ^^ Lung-lai, a name of the Laos tribes. 

■||h gf \±\ Limg-shau shan, the situation of the capital city, or imperial residence of the sove- 
reigns of the Sui dynasty who first resided at Chang-ngan, or Singan fu (Sheusi). This site 
was 33 li to the N. of the city proper of Chang-ngan. Much uncertainty exists as to tlie 
precise situations of many of the ancient capitals and other cities, which by no means neces- 
saiily coincided exactly with the sites bearing the same name in successive dynasties, or at 
the present time. Thus for instance ^g ^^, Kien-yeh is referred by some Chinese authors 
to J^ yj^ {^, Shang-yuen hien, and not to JQl ^ jf^ Kiang-ning fu, the present dy- 
nastic name of Nanking, See Lohyang. 

^m Ey Lung-si, a prefecture of the Ts'in dynasty answering to a part of Kansuh. This is 
probably identical with the Kwan-si of a later period. There is a Lung-si hien in Kansuh 
at the present time. 

m& ^^ Limg-timg, an old name of P ing-liang fu in Kansuh. 

^p yX Lwan-kiang, an old name of I'-ching hien, in Yang-chau fu (Kiangsu). See Chin- 
ch uen. 

il!§ y^ VX Ma-hu kiang, a name of the Kin-sha kiang or Ta b'ang. 
WS^ -^ Pip Ma-luh-kiah, Malacca. See Man-lah-kia. 


J^ /V ^ Ma-pah-rh, M'abar, or Malabar, on the eastern side of Cape Comorin. Pauthier 

identifies the characters Muh-hurpa with M abar. 
-^ J^ ^^ j^ ^^ Ma-peh-moh-tah-lai, a lake in Thibet, forming with another sacred lake, 

Langga Nor, the head-waters of the Indus. 
^ ^ Ma-shin, Banjermassin, a port in the S. of Borneo, formerly the capital of a kingdom. 

This is identified by some with that part of Borneo sometimes called Po-lo 
^ ^ Ma-tsih, Gutzlaff Island, off" the mouth of the Yangtsz'. 
-^ ^ ^S \i\l ® Mah-lo-tan-chUi kwoh, a country in South India, said to yield Baroos 

^ ^ ^1^ Mai-mai chin, the name "Trading-mart" incorrectly applied to Kiachta, Urga, 

Kalgan and other similar towns on the frontier. Mai-mai-cMn is really a small hamlet, 

and the trade is carried on near it, and not in Kiachta. The same name is applied to 

the Chiaese town, distant four miles from Urga. Kiachta is situated on a creek running 

into the Selenga in Lat. 50'' 2V N., and Long. 106° 28" E. Its importance as a place 

of Russo-Chinese trade is decreasing rapidly. 
^^ Man, the southern aborigines of China, the Mavji of Marco Polo. They were divided into 

eight tribes, and reached as far north as the Yangtsz*. 
>^ -y- Man-tsz', wild aborigines of Sech uen, living in caves. They gave their name to 

other tribes. 
Vwf R^'J aJP Man-lah-kia, Malacca, or some Malaysian kingdom, to the S. of Tsiampa. Its 

king Silahpalter Suhlah sent tribute to China in the third year of the reign of Yung-loh 

of the Ming dynasty. It was formerly a tributary of the kingdom of Siam. Stream-tin 

is mentioned in the Pen T sau as coming to China from this place. 
'/u 5vll ^§ Mang-kia-sah, Macassar, a city and district in the S. of the island of Celebes, 

now belonging to the Dutch, and called by them Vlaardingen. 
^ ^n ^t Mau-ming-ngan, or Mao Mingan, a small tribe of Mongols, Hving S. of the Great 

Desert, 800 li N.W. of Kalgan. 

"ST 1^ Meh-keh kwoh, Mecca, or Arabia itself. See T'ien-fang kwoh. 

^^ P^ 'iK 5W Meh-rh-kan ching, Merguen, a garrisoned town of some trade, in TsitsUiar, 
situated on the Nonni river, about 40 leagues above the capital of the province. It is the 
residence of a commandant ruling over aU the tracts lying between the E. bank of the 
Nonni and the Inner Hing-ngan range. It is in Lat. 46° 10" N., and Long. 124° 40' E. 

^ -f^ ^|S Meh-teh-na, city of Medina, or Yathreb, 300 miles to the N. of Mecca. 

i^ /X Mei kiang, the Meikong, or Mekong, or Cambodia river. This river, in its upper 
waters in Yimnan, is only a dangerous torrent. See Nan-chang kiang and Ho-ti kiang. 

^^ |f^ Mei kwoh, the United States of America. See Hwa-k'i kwoh. 

^ i^ ^ Mei-loh-ku, the Molucca Islands. 

5^ W^ W Mi-leh-fuh, the Buddha of the future calpa, called Maitreya in Sanscrit. Kwan- 
yin and Ju-lai-fuh are the deities of the present calpa. See Ju-lai-fuh. 

.^fc A^ ^ Mi-luh-hoh. See Meilohku. 

W^ .W P^ Mi-sz'-rh, Egypt, or Mitzi'aim. It is somtimes written Mi-sz' kwoh 


^ -^ Julian t'au, a group of islands near Tungchow (Shantung), marking the ancient 
coast line. 

^ -^ Miaii-tsz*, the aboriginal inhabitants of certain mountainous districts, and possibly of 
other parts of China. They consist of more than eighty tribes, scattered over the provinces 
of Kweichau, Hunan, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, and Yunnan, with doubtful branches in 
Chekiang, Hupeh and other provinces. Their dialect is mainly Taic, marking their 
affinity vrith the Laos tribes of Burmah, Siam, and Annam, and the Karens, or Wu-man. 
They are to be distinguished from the Man-tsz', of wliich there are tribes in Kwei-ting 
Men and Tu-yun fu (Kweichau) for instance. They are Buddhist in their religious prac- 
tices. They have never been subdxied by the Imperial armies, but ^ve rise to occasional 
hostilities of a local character, as between themselves, or against their natural enemies 
and cowardly oppressors, the Chinese officers. 
^^ ]^ Mieh-ts'ien, a Tungusic tribe on the N.E. related to the Manchus, and notoriously 

»^ PT^ Mien-shwui, a name of the Han river before the period of the San-kwoh-chi. See 
Yang-shwui. Hankow was once Mien-k au. 

^0 ^w| Mien-tien, or Mien kwoh, the kingdom of Ava or Burmah. See A-wa. 

W^ ^H ® ^lih-kieh kwoh, the country of the Massagetse, or Indo-Scythians. See Yueh-tL 

^^ (^ Mih kwoh, or ^0 ^^ [^, Mih-su kwoh, the name of Ling-tai hien (Kansuh) dur- 
ing the Chau period. It was changed to the present style by the Sui dynasty. 

[^ Min, the official designation of the province of Fukien. See Min-chung. 

pg Pfl Min chung, the name of one of the principalities or prefectures of the Ts 'in dynasty 
included in Peh-yueh, and forming part of the Yang-chau of Yii's time. As only a pari 
of Canton province was included, \\ith Fukien, under this name, the term is properly ap 
phed at the present time to Fukien. There is a Min-ts mg hien in Fukien (Fuhchau fu). 

1^ j'W j^ Ming-chau fu, the name of Ning-po fu during the T'ang dynasty. The Sung 
and the Yuen called it J^ "Jj^, King-juen. The Ming sovereigns restored the old name 
of Ming-chau fu, but afterwards changed it for the present style of ^ ffx n^f '^^ ^. 
]gj^ )f^, having adopted the name of ^, Ming for their dynasty. It is to be observed 
that in wise policy, the present dynasty has adhered to the same idea of clear," in simply 
exchanging T sing for Ming. 

|I|R; /X T^Iin kiang, a name of the Yangtsz' m its upper course, arising from a confusion as to 
the main stream. 

V^ ^ Ming-tu, Tonquin, or Tungking, the "eastern capital" of Cochin China. Tung-ming, 
a name somewhat resembling these, is the old designation of what is now Lan-i hien 
(Hon an). 

)^ '(Jl^ ^ H Mo-kia-to kwoh, the country of Magadha. See P'o-so kwoh, and the next 

J^ ^ "^ IS Mo-kieh-t*i kwoh, the cormtry of Magadha, the birthplace of Buddha, 
answering to the modem district of Behar. The popular dialect of this place, became 
the Pali or Fan, the sacred or classical language of the Buddhists of Ceylon. Pali is call- 
ed Magadabasa by the Burmese. 


^ff J?i Mo-ni, tlie name of the place where Buddha is said to have resided wltli the assem- 
bled gods. 

"Hr tnjj Mo-sah, or Mii-sa, the name for Moses, used by the Chinese Mahommedans. Mo-si 
is the term used in Christian publications in Chinese. 

^ it /iffi Mo-t'u-lo, Madura, in the Camatic. 

g^ Af^ ^^ 'J'® Moh-han-meh-teh, Mohammed, the " renowned " as the Arabic means. The 
character ^p, Moh, sometimes used by itself for Mohammed, comes nearer to this idea. 

^^ ^fej Moh-hoh, a name of the Nu-chin, or Xu-chih trilx", famous for their rubies and other 
gems. They were divided into seven tiibes. See Wuh-kiii. 

^^ '^ Moh-hu, the Mahommedans. See Moh-han-meh-teh. 

^p ^ Moh-kia, a name for Mecca, much used in the Straits. See T'len-fang kwoh. 

^j^ [^ Moh-ling, the name of Nanldng during Ts'in Chi-hwang's reigii. 

^p ^^ Moh-min, the Mahommedan people. See Hwiii-hwui. 

1^ j^ Moh-ni, or Mo-ni, ( j^ JE^), the Manichsean sect, descended from the Mani of Persia. 
They once had places of worship and adherents in China. 

^, jac. Moh-yau, the inhabitants of a Liberia, spoken of in Chinese legends, A\hose ancestors 
had never served" any lord. Theii' character is well maintained by their descendantB, 
the Hunan men of Chang-sha fu. 

^. ^ ^ Mu-yimg-shi, a branch of the Sien-pi, the ancestors of the Liau. 

^ ^|) Mnh-pang, a division of the country of I'eh-tsi. 

A^ 5^ 5^ Miih-t'u ching, the wooden palisade in Shingklng. 

^^ ^^ Mung-fan, a foreign tribe to the W. of Sech uen. 

^^ "^ Mimg-ku, Mongolia, or the Mongohans. This vast country is inhabited by the nomadic 
Mongols, and is divided into p^ ^^ "gf, N'ld ]\rwig-hi, and p?p ^^ "gf, Wai Mung-lcu, 
or Inner and Outer MongoUa. ^ ;^ij^ ^, T ai ch'ih-wu, and the ^^ ^ij, K eh-heh, 
with the ;^ jj^ ^, Tah-tah-rh, were Mongol names. 

^^ "gp /\^ Mung-ku jin, the Mongols, who received their name of Kxihii Mongol, from Gen- 
ghis Khan, to distinguish his own tribe as the Celestial people," from the Tatars, " tribu- 
taries." There is no proof that the Chinese call themselves ' Celestials," as most persons 

yj^ ^j/|| Mwan chau, the country of Manchuria. 

V^ y^ Mwan jin, the Manchus, or Mandshus, a Tungusic race, which with the Lamutes of 
Siberia form the Eastern branch. They now rule the Mongolic and Chinese peoples, 
formerly their celestial " superiors. 

Vm -^ Mwan-kiun, the Tartar bannermen. See Pah k'i. 

Viw P*'J Mwan-lah, the Mullah, a Mahommedan name used for the Jewish Eabbi at Kai-fimg 
fu. The Jewish remnant seems to have become merged into the kindred faith of the fol- 
lowers of Islam. See K ai-fung fu, Ts ing-chin kiau and Yih-tsz'-loh-nieh-tien. 




^ -^ Xai-man, a tribe of Mongols, GOO // N.W. of (he Hifimg gate. 

"^ ^ Nan-cliang, or "^ ^, Xan-chang, the capital of the tribes of the South Laos. The 
Laos, belonging to the Taic class of the Turanian family, are called S/iyan, or Laipisciyn 
by the Burmese, and Lcnmm, or Laniangh by Euroj)ean writers of the 17th century. 

^ ^ /X Nan-chang kiang, the Meikong river, gi\ing its name to the South Laos tiibes. 

^^ j\\ Nan chtiu, the Southern pro\-inces of Cliina. See Nan-yiieh. 

]^ g^ Naii-chau, the style of the chiefs of I^aos tribes bordering on Yunnan. This term 
is sometimes appUed to their country, the Caraian of Marco Polo. 

^^ 5% Nan-ching, a name of Xan-chang fu city (Kiangsi), aLso called Hung-tu. 

^^ Jf^ Xan-hai, the Indian Ocean. The gulf of Tonquin, or any part of the sea off the 
coast of the S. of China may be understood by this tenn, according to the context. One 
of Ts in Chi-lnvang's provinces in the present Kwangtung was known by this name, still 
perpetuated m the Xan-hai hien. 

^^ '/^ ^Mi tft Q Xan-hai Kwan-shi-yhi, Kwanyin, the Goddess of Mercy. 

m ^K -^''^'^ ^^J Kiangnan or Xanking. See Kiang-ning. 

(^ ^^ Xan-kiau, a name first given to a country S. of Cochin China, but commonly inter- 
changed with the next. 

j^ ^^ pir :^S Xan-kiau-chi-ti, a name of Cochin China. See Yueh-nan. 

1^ ^^ Xan-king, one of the ancient capitals of China, of which since the days of the First 
Emperor," there have been at least eighteen changes amongst nine principal places of 
imperial residence. See Kiang-ning and Kin-ling. The Kin Tartars called Ka i-fung 
fu by this name. Xanking was also knoAvn to the Ming sovereigns by the name of 
Ying-t ien. 

j^ ^^ (^ Xan-man kwoh, a name of Cambodia. See Chin-lah. Xan-man is another 
name of Ku-liih liien, in Shun-teh fu (Pehchihli). 

1^ |_J_[ Xan shan, the Kwanlun mountains. See T'ien shan. 

1^ "^ Xan wan, the Praya Grande at Macao. 

^ fflE j^ ^ 1^ ^ Xan-wu A-mi-to-fuh, an invocation to Amita Buddha, " Honour to 
the boundless Buddha." 

IW ^^ Xan-yueh, an old name of Canton province, sometimes applied to Annam or Tonquin. 
See Yueh-nan. 

1^ ^^ Xa-pa, the port of the capital of the Liukiu islands. See Shau-ni. 

^' J^ ^^ Xgai-hwan ching, Aaihom or Aykhom, a town on the Amur, opposite Sagalien 
ula, built hi the Ming period to repress the incursions of the Mongols. It is now m ruins. 

^^ -^ ^ Xgai-lau-i, a tribe of the Laos, connected with the Karens, and said to be skilful 
in dyeing and embroidering cloth. See Xan chau. 

^^ _^ 5^ Xgan-fau ching, a garrison near Kurkara usu. 

^^ 1^ @ Xgan-nan kwoh, the kingdom of Annam, or Cochin China. Much trade was 
carried on with Chma before the recent Yunnan troubles. See Yueh-nan. There is a 
kind of cinnamon, called Nganpien kwei, brought from Annam, in very high repute. 


^" 'S S Ngan-shih kwoh, Cabul. Persimmons were brouglit from tliis country during 
the Han dynasty. 

^' B§ Ngan-si, a name of Si-ngan fu under tlie Yuen dynasty. 

^" Mi Ngan-sih, or ^ ^, Ngan-si, the country of the Paithians. The drug benzoin is 
named after this country, from which it was first brought. 

^^ i^ Ngan-wan, the island of Amboyna, near Ceram, one of the Moluccas. 

^' ^ Ngan-yih, the capital of the Hia dynasty, answering to the present Hia hien, in 
P'ing-yang fu (Shansi). 

^j^ 'l^ Ngau-han, a tribe of Mongols, Uving beyond the Hifung gate of the Great Wall. 

(^ ^ Gi Ngau-lo-pa, the continent of Europe. See Ta-si-yang. 

7^ P^ Ngau-men, Macao, situated in the district of Hiang-shan. See A-ma-ngau. 

^ ^ ^ Ngeh-lu-teh, the Eleuths, or Songares, a Mongohan tribe formerly exercising 
independent sovereignty over the T'ien Shan Peh Lu, Khoten, and even more extensive 
territory, after the expulsion of the Mongols from China. They are noAV scattered all 
over I'll. 

'(^ 13 -^o'^ kwoh, the Kussian empire. The Kussians themselves speak of the Chinese as the 
Kitai. See Ki-tan. 

'(^ /fS ^ Ngo-lo-si, the usual translation of the word Russia into Chinese. This is perhaps a 
transference of the Mongol word Ooi-oos, or Oros into Cliinese, that being the name for 
Eussia, first known to the Chinese during the early part of the Ming dynasty. The in- 
tervention of the Kaiu Kited, exterminated by the Mongols, after a long rule over the north 
of China, had prevented any knoAvledge of China Proper. The Chinese are however still 
called luted, by the Russians, after this northern race. 

i^ JM "r" ^ -^S^ kwoh niu-luh, the defeated Russians, called Albasins, who were brought 
to Peking after the attack on the fort of Albasin, or Yacsa, in 1G84. They were formed 
into a kmd of troop, and provision for their spiritual wants was the cause of the esta- 
blishment of the Russian ecclesiastical mission at Peking. See Ya-keh-sah. They are 
now nearly extinct as a foreign people. 

^ )^ IsTgoh-chii, an ancient name for Wuchang and Hanyang. Wuchang was the capital 
of the Wu dynasty, for a time. 

Tfj) ^H ^if Ngoh-lo si, Russia, as Avritten in Chinese official works. 

^J ^ ^ Wf Ngoh-rh-to-sz', the Ortous tribe of Mongols, on the N. borders of Shansi, W. 
of KweUiwa ching, and E. of the Kalkas. They are arranged under seven banners, and 
their territory is nearly surrounded by the Yellow River. Tliis as well as other of the 
Mongolian tribes, rendered valuable assistance to the Manchu invaders of China, and 
they are therefore pecuharly favoured by the ruling dynasty. 
vw "S Ngoh-tang, Oden, a city of Tartary. 

^ ^JC i^ fe Ngoh-tun-ta-la, Hotun tala, the Mongohan name for Slng-mh-hcd, or " Sea 
of Constellations," the network of streams and pools at the source of the Yellow River. 
See Sing-suh-hai. 
JS ^ S Ni-p'o-lo, Nepaul. See Koh-rh-keh. 


JSi flj ^ Ni-pu-isii, Nipcliu, a to\vB in the Tuchetu Khanate of the Kalkas, on the Russian 
frontier. It is in Lat 51^ 49' N., and is the place where, after much delay, the Chinese 
and Russians signed a treaty iu 1689. 

^ ^ Ni-shi, Pulo Nias, W. of Sumatra. 

"fM J Ni-tsz', the wild tiibes of Annam. See To-lo-men. 

W^ ^ Nieh-kiun, an old name of a part of the present Chang-teh fu (Honan). It was the 
seat of the capital of Peh tsf, one of the many states of the Wu Tai, still called by tiiis 
name in dociunents. 

^ ^ /q^ 5% Nieh-la-pun ching, Nielam, or Ngialam, a to^^•n and district on the Ss fron- 
tiers of Ulterior Thibet. 

^- J^ ^ Ning-hai hien, a district of Fung-t'ien fn, in Shingking, 

■"^ ^ Ning-hia, or Egrigaia, a to^^•n in Kansuli, visited by Marco Polo, and then containing 
many Nestorian Christians in its prefectiu-e. The; researches of Pautbier tend to show that 
Egrigaia was the name of the kingdom, of which Ninghia, identified with Calatia, was the 
capital. See Wuh-lah-hai. 

^' pT ^a 5K Nmg-ku-tah ching, Ningkuta, or Kingimta, the largest town m the province 
of Kirin, the residence of the officers commanding the south-eastern part of Kirin, l}Tng on 
the Sea of Japan. It lies on the Hurha, a branch of the Songari liver, in Lat. 44'' 55' 
N., and Long. 128^ E. 

■^ vX li^ Ning-po fu, the city of Ningpo, the Liam-po of the Portuguese, where the firet 
development, on a large scale, of Eui'opean intercourse with China took place. See Sz'- 
ming. Ming-chau fu. 
r* ^E Niu-chwang, the inland town mentioned in the Treaty of 1858, but which from the 
river being silted up, was imfit for foreign trade, and was exchanged for Ying-tsz', which is 
still called Niuchwang. See Yingtsz' and Yun-tsz'. 

"^ ^£ ^ii Niu-chwang ching, a garrison subordinate to the head garrison of Shingking, in 
Lat. 41° 20' 25" N., and Long. 122" 41' 50" E. situated some 80 miles up the river 
Liiiu, or 30 miles by road, from Yingtsz', the treaty-port. 

"^"^ ^^ \l\ Niu-t'u shan, a mountain near Khoten whence jade used to con e in large 
quantities. It is curious that car/ed portions of this mineral, sometimes called nephrite, or 
axe-stone, have been met with in Euroi^e under circiunstances which may point to these 
jade articles having been brought from the far east. Chinese seals of some such material 
have also been apparently found in Ireland. 

Z^ IM! Nu-chih, ) Tungusic tribes, ancestors of the Kin, and progenitors of the present Manchu 

"^ 1^ Nu-chin, j reigning family. See Suh-shin-shi. Wuh-kih. 

^gj^ ^ Nu-i, a name applied to the Laos tribes inhabiting parts of Yunnan, as well as to cer- 
tain Turkic tribes on the border's of Nepaul. 

J^ 231 Nu kiang, the old name of the Irawaddy river. The Mongols made this one of the 
Sz' tub of G jia. See Ya-lu-tsang-pu, and Lu-kiang. 

I5C "?* Hi Nu-tsz' kwoh, one of the many countries of Amazons, mentioned in Chinese writ- 
ings to the N. of Wu-Men. There was a Nu-kwoh 1,000 U to the E. of Fu-sang^ 


pj ^ Nui-fan, the tributary "foreiga" tribes in Sech'uen and Formosa, or any province 
within China Proper. 

^ '/^ ISTui-hai, the Caspian Sea. This is sometimes written Ni-hai. 

P? ^ Nui-i, the wild aborigines or mountain tribes of Kweichau, &c. 

P9 ^ Nui-shi, one of Ts 'in Chi-hwang's forty prefectures, including part of ShensL 

ft db Nui-tu, China, the " Inner Land." This is often written pj ^, Nui-ti. 

j^ ^ Nung-jin, an aboriginal tribe in Yunnan. This name is used in some dialects for vil- 
lagers, but in the Amoy ilialect it is an offensive tenn. 

IW iS O-cliing. See A-chmg. 

IW ^^ S 0-fang-kung, the harem of Ts'in Chi-hwang at Si-ngan fu. See A-ching. 

P^ ^ 0-ko. See Tai-tsz'. 

Pf^ ^ Oh-shi, the style of the consort of the Turkic sovereign, himself called ^ ^JC> Hiung- 
nu, the name usually giveii to this tribe. This Oh-shi is directed to be pronounced as 
^ 3C' Yen-chi. See Tan-u and Hiu-chii. 

jS^ 7T O-tan. See A-tan. This name for Adam seems preferable to the one used by the 
delegates of the Missionary Societies, namely ^5 g , Ya-tang. The latter is however 
founded on a tradition given in the '^g ^' |^ "^, a book of the Ming dynasty, giving 
an account of ancient personages. The account is said to be derived from the ^y i^, 
Si King, or Western Classic," a very good name for the Bible. 

Ci Pa? the name of an ancient principality ui the S.E. of Sech'uen, of which Ave have a trace 

in the Pa Hi, or jugglery of the streets. See also Koh-lah-pa. 
Ci ^ Pa-lin, or Barin, a tribe of Mongols, living 720 U N.E. of Kaupeh k'au, and "W. of 

Gi ^ jp ^ Pa-rh-ku-rh, Barkul, called by the Chinese Chinsi fu, and now attached to 

Kansuh. It lies at the E. spm- of the T'ien shan, near the lake Barkul. The garrisoned 

town is also called I'/io Men. See Chinsi fu. 
tE M" I^^'shili, Passir, on the S.E, of Borneo, formerly an independent kingdom, vieldin^ 

much gold dust. See Wan-lai. 


G* (^ Pa-sliuh, the western of the three states into which China was tli\ided A.D. 221, at 
the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. It is now used as the official designation of the 
proNonce of Sech uen. See Pa. 

™i 3iM yt* UJ Pa-tah-keh-shan, a long mountain valley, situated between the Belur Tagh 
and the Eidge of Pamere. It belongs to Bokhara, and is celebrated for its unrivalled 
rubies, its iron, sulphur, salt and lapis lazuH. It is well watered by the Oxus. The chief 
town, Fyzabad, is m Lat. 37'' N., and Long. 70= 35' E. 

1*1 H. Pa-tan, an ancient seaport near Kii-Lan, or QuUon, fi-equented by Chinese merchants. 

PTx ^^ Pa-t ang, Bathang, called by Hue " the plain of Cows," a rich valley in Thibet, with 
a to^^Tl of the same name, containing a Chinese garrison. 

Gi ^^ '^ Pa-t'u-lu, a Manchu order of knighthood, or peerage. A lordship or gi-atuity for- 
merly accompanied the distinction, wliich is augmented by various qualifying titles in Man- 
chu or Chinese. The word itself is equivalent to the character ying Mung, a hero. See 

^m ^^ Pa-tung, Padang, on the W. coast of Sumatra. It fonncrly yielded much Baros 

Gi S« P^ l!$'J Pa-yen-k eh-lah, Bayenkara, a high range of mountains, commencing W. of 
the T"sing-hai. It is sometimes called Siueh-ling. 

j\ )^ Pah-k'i, tlie "eight banners," under wliich tlie Manchus are marshalled. They have 
a nommal strength of 80,000 men to each banner, or altogether G40,000 men. Each ban- 
ner is distinguished by its colom-. Four banners are wholly yellow, wliite, red and blue, and 
four have these coloiu^ bordered. 

yV "y Jd^, 5ffu 1^ Pah-peh-sih-fuh kwoli, the Cavgigu of Marco Polo, inhabited by the 
North Laos tribes having their capital at Chiangmai. See Chau-mei. 

/V J^ Pah-yuen, the " Eight Pasturages," a place in Inner Mongolia, near the ancient Mongxjl 
capital, Kaiping. 

^^ ^W ^^^ ching, Bai, a town in I'li, about 25 miles W. of Sairam. This was fonuerly 
kno\\'n as Pa-lurlda. 

^^ ^^ 5W Pai-ti ching, a town placed in Chinese maps, in Anterior Thibet 

^ Pang ching, the capital of a small kingdom belonging to Tsn-pa-^irmg, the enemy of 
Kau-tsii, the founder of the Han dynasty. It is now tlie department of -^ yy] j^, Su- 
chau fu in Kiangsu. The name dates from the Ts in. 

^^ ^ P'ang-hiang, Paghan, or Pegassun, the ancient capital of Burmah. 

1^ y^ P ang-hu, the Pescadore islands, twenty-one of which are inhabited. They fonn a ting 
di\ision, attached to Formosa. The Dutch seized Fischer's island in 1624. 

"^ ^ ^ Pang-koh-lah, the country of Bengal. See Tan kwoh. 

^ ^^ P'ang-li, a former name of the Poyang Lake. 

j^ !^ P an Hi, a name of Fuh Hi or Folii. 

^: ^^ Pau-pau, Papua, or the island of New Guinea. China was probably supplied during 
the Ming period, Avith slaves called Kuxtn-hm-nu from Papua. This is sometimes called 
Pa-pii-ya, as in the Yih-t ung-yu-t ti. 


^ !^ Peh-cbili, a large country iii the N., cold and marshy, and divided into three provinces. 
See Hi-chih. 

^\j la ^M Peh-chih-li, or Chili-li, a name formerly given to the metropolitan province (now 
called in short Chih-H), to distinguish it from Kiangnan, or Nan-cHh-li, the old location of 
the seat of government, where many of the boards, or departments, of control lingered for 
a long time after the change of capital. 

;|[j y^ Peh-hai, a name given by the Chinese to the Gulf of Pehchihli, but usually assigned in 
foreig-n works to Lake Baikal in Irkutsk. Here, on its southern side, was the oiiginal seat 
of the Uigurs, according to Persian writers. 

Hu 5^ ^ Peh-hia-i, the island of Tarakai, or Northern Yesso, opposite the mouth of the Sa- 
galien river. It is called, incorrectly, Sagalien in European maps. The Japanese call it 
Kr afto. On some Chinese maps this island is apparently named Ku-yeh-t au. A large 
Eussian garrison is now pennanently established on the southern coast of tliis island, and it 
will be of considerable importance as a military and telegraphic station. 

Hu ^ Peh-king, Peking, the capital of China, called Khan kdigh, or KJuxmpalil; by the 
Mongols. This name was corrupted into Khambalu by the Chinese, and Camhaluc by Marco 
Polo. The Paquin of Sinaean kings," of Milton, or the Paguin of Lord Bacon, it was 
considered to be a seaport by the latter. It is in Lat. 39° 54' 13'^ N., and Long. 116° 
27' E. It has been the capital since 1411. The city having nine gates, is also called 
jh I I 5W I^i^^ 1^*2" ching, and the Manchu governor was formerly styled after this 

pl pi% ^^ Peh-koh ch au, the " Dove's nest," the garden at Macao in which the grotto of 
Camoens is situated. 

mi Peh-lan, a tribe of the Kiang, livmg near Tangut, remarkable for their military prowess. 

K 11^ Peh-min kwoh, a countiy of Albinoes, mentioned in the SknirJiai-Jdng. See Yang- 
peh-t u. 

Au TO Peh-ngo, Pegu, formerly a part of the Burman empire. 

;^(j ^ Peh-p'ing, the present city of Tsun-chau fu m Pehchihh', a temporary capital of Yung- 
loh. See Lung-shau-shan. 

Q [1| Peh-shan, a snow-capped peak in the T'ien Shan range, which was an active volcano 
as late as the middle of the 7th centmy. 

Pl y^ Peh-t'ah, the " wliite tower " on the Yellow Eiver. 

Au Mu ^ Peh-ti kiun, an old principaHty, including at least Kansuh with other regions in 

^u *^ Peh-ting, the country of Bichbahsh about Lake Tengez, or Balkash, beyond Tar- 

Au ^ M-[ Peh-ting shan, a volcanic mountain in Turfan, yielding sal ammoniac from fissures 
in its sides. This drug is in much repute as an expensive ophthahnic remedy. 

y 1^ Peh-tsi, or Hakusai, a kingdom in the south-eastern part of Corea, afterwards united 
with Sin-lo, from whence m the year 284 B.C. the Japanese obtained Chinese books, and 
a knowledge of Chinese characters. Compare another accoimt under Wang-jin. The 


eecond best quaL'ty of ^uoseng was formerly brought from here. One of the Wu Tai states 

had this name. 
B^ yV Peh-t u-jin, a name used in Canton for Moors and Parsees. See Yang-peh-t u. 
Jn ^ (^ Sw Peh-t'u-nah ching, the garrison of Petune ula, a ting depaiiment, called Peh- 

tu-nah H-sz'-ting, in the north-westeni part of Kirin. It is a place of considerable trade, be- 
ing accessible from all quarters by means of the Songari and Amur rivers, and their niune- 

rous branches. It is in Lat. 45'' 10' N., and Long. 124^ 40' E. 
Q -^^ Peh-yang, a country of the Hiungnu, or Tiu-kic tribes. 
^^ <^ P'ei-lau, wild tribes in the island of Hainan. 
Pfl] >^ P'i-kien, Pegu, adjoining Burmah. See Peh-ngo. 
Rfli '^ f\v P'i-sliie-ye, a name of Formosa. See T'ai-wan. 
i^ ^* [Jj tIx Pi-shii-shan-chwang, the name of the Imperial palace and park at Jehol, 140 

miles from Peking. It is delightfully situated in the midst of towering hiUs, and is enclosed 

by a great wall. Before the palace-gate there are inscriptions in Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, 

and Turkish, ordering passengers to dismoimt. 
f|» ^'j'j Pien chau, a name of K'ai-fung fu m Honan in the Sung period, when it was the 

capital. See Pien-liang and Liang-chau. 
f|» ^ Pien king, a name of K'ai-fung fu in Honan in the Han chau, Sui and T ang periods. 

See Tung king. Ta-liang is a name referred to K ai-fung fu. 
ir ^^ Pien-hang, the name of K'ai-fung fu under the Mongohan djiiasty. 
^m J^ P'Ui-chen, Pitshan, or Pidjan, a city of the Mahommedans, situated 760 // W. of HamU, 

in Lat. 42'' 45' N., and Long. 91° 10' E. See Shen-shen. This was formerly a chief 

city of the Uigurs. 
1^ W ® Pih-lin kwoh. See Fuh-lin kwoh. 
/^ ^j5 Pin-lang, the island of Penang. See Sin fau. 
^M ^^ ^C ^M. P'JD-p'o-so-lo, Eajagiiha, the ancient capital of Magadha. 
^W ^^ @g P'in-sz' kwoh, a country in Central Asia famed for its apples and fruits. 
l' ^£ "^ P'ing-hu-t'au, the island of Firando, in Japan, which the Dutch left in 1640 for 

Desima, near Nagasaki. Here Koxinga was in aU probability born of a Japanese mother. 

See Ching chi-hmg and Wei-yang. 
^^ yX P'ing kiang, a name of the Suchau region in Kiangsu province, during the Sung 

dynasty. It more strictly belongs to the district of Wu hien in this sub-department, of 

which it is still the oflScial designation. 
l^ [^ P'ing-luh, a district in Kiai chau (Shansi), identical according to some with Wan- 

shang, or with Chung-tu, the town of Lu, of which Confucius was chief magistrate. It 

aftenvards belonged to the more northerly state of Ts'i. It is said by Amiot to have 

been the actual capital, as the name implies, of Lu. See Su-kii kwoh. 
^^ 1|[^ ^a P'ing-shun chin, the Cohinchinese name of Tsiampa. 
^ ^ j^ P'ing-ts'iuen chau, or Pa-keu, a district city of CbilJi, in the department of Ching- 

teh, beyond Jehol. It is the seat of extensive silk manufactures. 
^ ^ 'ij\\ P'o-lo chau, a modem term for the island of Borneo. 


^j^ ^ f ^ Po-lo-miin, the Brahmins of India. The tenn is also applied to the BurmanB. 

^ ^H ^ Po-lo-nai, the city of Benares in India. 

^ Wt ^ Po-lo-sz*, a suggested name for Prussia, usually confounded with Austria. See 
Tsz'-ying, and Tan ying. 

^? W^ ® P'o-loh kwoh, a country in the Si Hat, perhaps answering to Borneo, and yielding 
lung'Tiau-hiang, or Baros camphor. See Pa-tung. This drug is also called f^ -^ ^g 
^, Hoh-p'o-lo hiang. Is this a name for Borneo ? 

UjC ^5 Po-na, Poonah in India. 

^^ ^ij P'o-ni, the island of Borneo, a part of which is said by the natives of the island to have 
formerly belonged to China. It was once a dependency of Tu-po hwoh (Java). There is a 
modem state on the W. of the island called Pontiana. See Puh-ni and Wan-lai. 

^^ ^* H P o-BO kwoh, the country or the capital of Magadha. See Mo-kieh-t'i kwoh. 

igj^ |l/^ ^^ ^^ Po-sz'-king kiau, the religion of Zoroaster, as embodied in the Persian Classic, 
the Zend Avesta. Occasionally the words Po-sz' may be understood as meaning Parsee. 
See Ho-shin kiau. 

Kst ^^ ^ Po-sz' kwoh, the country of Persia, the source of gum-resins, and many valuable 
medicines, said to have been introduced from thence to China. 

^ Poh, the capital of Kuh Kau Sin, answering to Yen-sz' hien, in Honan fii (Honan). This 
was also the capital of the Tin part of the Shang dynasty. 

■jffl ^H Poh-lo, the Chinese name of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller. He was governor of 
a lu, or circuit, wliich included the city of Yang-cMu, and 27 other cities, being part of 
the Mongol province which included Honan and Kiangpeh. See Chii-mih-fuh-sz'. 

i^ ^ 4^ Poh-lo-teh, a town in Kansuh. 

ilf- ^ ^ ffi^ ^ ^ ® Poh-rh-tu-koh-rh-ya kwoh, Portugal as written in recent Chinese 

^a -^ 5w Poh-tsung ching, a town and district in the S.E. part of Anterior Thibet, border- 
ing on the Nu-i tribes which lie E. of Nepaul. 

Iw ^ yi^ Poh-yang hu, the Poyang lake, so named from an island in it. See P ang-lL 

-^ Q y^ P u-chang hai. Lake Lop Nor in I'li, into which the Taiim flows, after receiving 
the Yarkand, Kashgar, Oksu and Khoten rivers. See Lo-pu-nau-rh. 

^S ~y^ P'u-kan, the city of Amarapura, a capital city of Burmah. 

'fjj *^ '0? ^ ^^ Pu-lu-sha-pu-lo, Peshawur (or Piirushapura, in Sanscrit), formerly the ca- 
pital of Cabul. See Ngan-shih kwoh. 

'ft? ^ ^ Pu-lu-teh, the Bourouts, a vagrant Mahommedan tribe, bordering on Kashgar. 
They are divided into the eastern and western branches, and formerly sent a yearly tribute 
of horses to Ushi. 

^H ^M 5^ Pu-lui hai, Lake Barkul, near Chinsi fu. See Hiung-nu chung hai. 

^^ J^ Pu-ni, a lake near Sansing in Kirin, through which the river Hourha runs (just as the 
Jordan flows through the Lake of Tiberias), and then joins the Songari. 

'In 3^ 'fcfc 5W Pu-tah-la ching, Budala, a name of H'lassa, the capital of Thibet, as contain- 
ing the palace of the Dalai-lama, called P(^ang-iimrhi, or red town," on mount Budala, 


a little to tlie W. of tlie city proper. 

mJ 1^ ^P SE Pii-teh-ha ching, Putek in Hehlungb'ang, or Tsitsihar, in Manchuria. The 
chief town of the district lies on the Nonni river, nearly opposite Mergiien, and is the resi- 
dence of the officer who has jurisdiction over the coimtry between the W. bank of that 
river, and the Inner Hingngan range. 

"H r*^ M-J P'ti-to shan, the island of Puto, ia the Chusan Archipelago. 

y^ y^ Puh chau, the capital of the Wei kingdom, in the Chau period, and now forming the 
departmental city of Tung-chmg fu in Shantung. 

^^ y^ Puh-hai. This word primarily means an estuary or bay of the sea, but was applied to 
the Gulf of Liautung and to the Moh-hoh, a tribe of the Nu-chin dwelling near there. The 
term was also applied to the Yellow Sea, or the estuary of the Yellow Eiver. In some recent 
Chinese works the Sea of Java, or the Sea of Borneo is called by this name. A division 
of the old principality or kingdom of Tsi-nan kwoh was called Puh-hai, including the 
present Li-tsin hien, Chen-hwa hien, Yang-sin hien, all in Shantxmg, and Nan-p'i hien in 
Pehchihli. These districts still enjoy this pieh-ming. 

Wi vS Puli-i^ tlie island of Borneo. See Po-lo chau and P o-ni. 

^^ ^^ P u-tai, a place in the Tung-hai, where Ts 'in Chi-hwang is said to have stalled his 
horses, with tethers of the Acorus plant, as the word P u indicates. 

/\^ ^O Pun-ti, the " natives " of Canton province, as opposed, literally, to the immigi'ant Hak- 
kas, or settlere." The Puntis are said to have originally come from some neighbouring 

^e ^ P'ung-lai, a place in Shantung, to which Yii's father was banished. This name is 
much used as a teashop sign in Hankow. See Kwan-t i. 

^E ^^ ^W P'ung-p o ching, a garrison among the Turfan tribes. 

J^ Ict ® P wan-ku kwoh, a kingdom in the China Sea, whose people were said to worship 
P'wanhi, the Adam of the Chinese Genesis. 

^a ^^ ® P'wan-p wan kwoh, a country near the Kwanlun mountains, said to yield the best 
sulphur. This name is sometimes referred to Bantam in Java. 

J|^ Eh-sah, the Mahommedan name for Jesus Christ. The words ^ ^, Ye-su, used 
in the Christian writings have become classical from their insertion in Kanghi's Imperial 



'J^ Wf Sah-la-tsi, Sararchi, a th)^ district in the Kwdshu tau in Pehchili. 
^ yi -^ Sah-ma-rh-han. Samarcand (or Maracanda), tlie Mongol name of the an- 
cient capital of Asia, containing the tomb of Timur, It is in Lat. 39° 56' N., and Long. 
66° 50' E. Samarcand is now Eussian territory, beiag the headquarters of the newly 
conquered district of Zariavshan, See Shie-mi-sz'-han and K i-pin kwoL 
^S. /S^ JW Sai-h-muh ching, Sairim, or Hanlemuh, a garrison subordinate to Ushi on the 
S. of the T'ien shan, in Lat. 41° 41' N., and Long. 81° 58' E. 

}\\ San chuen, the name of one of Ts'in Chi-hwang's forty prefectures, in Yu chau, or 

^P San fu, the three principalities of Shensi, of which Si-^an fa, Fung-4, and Fu-fung 
were the chief towns. See San ts in. 

'^ ^^ San-fuh-tsi, a kingdom in the island of Sumatra. The piratical and compara- 
tively civUized character of the people, agrees well with that of the Acheenese of the present 
day. Their houses are said to have been bmlt on rafts or staging, on the waterside. The 
king bird of paradise, and tiie ax-diafted variety came from tibere. The place called Yu- 
t'o-li has been referred to San-fu-tsi. 

y^ San-han, an old name of the region about the present Peking, included apparently in 
Liautung of that date, and answering to portions of YU's province of K i chau. It is 
placed in some Chinese works to the S.E. of Gorea. 

ySj San ho, the south, north, and west divisions of the Yellow River. See Si ho. There 
is a San-ho liien, in Shim-tien fu in Chihli pro^ince. 
■^ "^ San-hoh-hwui, the Triad Society, See Ko-lau. 
^^ San kian, the three orthodox creeds, Confucianism, Buddhism and Tauism. 
|iq San kwoh, the triarchy of " three kingdoms " of Wei, Shuh and Wu, which was for- 
med at the close of the Eastern Han dynasty. 
^ San-lih, or Sanlak, the island of Banca. See Ku-kiang. 

pg San miau, the original stock of the Chinese abori^es, originally living in Wuchang 
fu, Yohchau fu, Kiukiang fu and portions of Nganhwui proviuce, in the days of Yau, Shun 
and Yii They were removed, for insubordination, to San Wei in Kansuh. The T^cmg 
hiang, who peopled Tangut and Thibet were descended from the San miau. See San weL 
Sl •'fi San-pau-lung, Sanpalang or Samarang in Java. Compare this name with San- 

1 1 [ San shan, a name of Fuhchau fu in Fukien province. See Yung ching. 
fiB ^^"^ siang, a name of the present Hunan province. See Siang chung. 
j(5 5W San-sing ching, a garrisoned town in Kirin, situated at the junction of the Hurha 
branch with the Songari river. The resident officials have rule over the country of the 
Amur. The hunting tribes pay a tribute of peltry to the Chinese authorities. 

. ^^ San-ts in, a division of the province of Kwanclumg (Shensi), into three piincipalities in 
the Han period. See San fii. 

, ^^ San t sii, three ancient divisions of Central China, commonly referred to Kingchau fu, 


Hunan and Hupeh respectively, with a part of Honan. The word 'fsu is now commonly 
used as an equivalent for Hukwang. 

m Jq[ San wei, the scene of exile of the San miau, in the S.E. of the department of Ngansi, 
in Kansuh. 

zn ^ San wu, the region now known as Sangchau, Suchau and Huchau. See Wu chung. 

fa ^ tt jiiS Sang-keh-lin-tsin. See Sang wang. 

^^ iVB flT Sang-kia-shi, a kingdom in the Doab. 

^^ :S Sang-li, Sangri, or Samye, a royal city near Hlassa. From this place formerly came the 
Cordijceps Sinensis {Iliorts cm-tun^ cJiung\ a celebrated Chinese drag of gieat value in past 

^ P^ Sang-men, Buddhist priests. See Fau-tu and Sha-men. 

fW i Sang wang, or Sang-keh-lin-tsin, the Mongolian ally of the Chinese emperor, who com- 
manded the army in the north of China in 1860. 

5^ 71*1 Sha-chau, a name assigned by Pauthier to Tunhwang, a newly established district in 
Kansuh, to the S.W. of Ngansi. Biot places a small town, 80 leagues W. of Suhchau in 
Kansuh under this head, and a small town so named, of no importance, is placed in Euro- 
pean maps a little to the S. of Tunhwang. 

\^y ^g Sha-chih, a kingdom in Oude. 

^^ y^ Sha-jin, synonymous with Nung-jin. 

^* ^^ [^ Sha-kii kwoh, an ancient name of Yarkand. See Yeh-rh-kiang. 

^& ffi Sha-lih, Macao Eoads. 

*^ II Sha-men, Buddhist priests. Shaman is a coiTuption of Siu/nana, a name of Buddha. 

^^ J^ Sha-moh, the desert of Gobi. See Ko-pih. 

*^ J\) Sha-shi, a mart on the Yangtsz', 293 geographical mUes from Hankow, and 3,380 li 
from Peking. There is water commimication with the Han, by means of a canal, so that 
goods may be sent across the country to ports on the Han river. 

1 1 [ y^ ^ Shan-hai-kwan, the point at which the Great Wall abuts upon the seacoast, on 
the western shore of the Gulf of Liautung. The town is in Lat. 40° N., and Long. 119° 
50' E. and consists of three distinct parts. It is now three or fom- miles from the sea, and 
is the point through which all goods for Manchuria and Corea must pass. 

1 1 [ 55c Shan-jung, a name of the Hiung-nu, in the time of the five emperors. See Hiung-nu. 

1 1 [ ^ Shan-nan, the name of a large tau, south of one of the spurs of the Kwan-lun range 
and including parts of Honan, Hupeh and Shensi. It was divided into a west and an 
east portion. See Liu-kiu kwoh. 

i\h ^K Shan-tu, Swatow, the shipping port for the city of Cficcu-chau fa, a treaty-port in 
Kwangtung province, situated on the Han Hang. Swatow is distant some 180 miles from 

Jt. )\\ l-U Shang-ch uen shan, the island of Sancian, miscalled St. Johns, a few mil^ W. of 

Macao, on which the body of Francis Xavier was temporarily interred. See Tsian shan. 

n J^ Shang-hai, the " higher sea " as distinguished from another, the " hia yang," or lower 

sea." These were two of some eighteen estuaries which occupied the district S. of Sung- 


kiang. These were gradually silted up, but as it could stUl be approached from the sea,'* 

the name of Shanghai was retained. The British settlement at this important treaty-port 

was foimded in 1843. See Hu-tuL 
Jl ^^ (Jj Shang-tang shan, a hill in Shansi, or the S.W. of the old province of Yii, called 

K'i chau. The best ginseng is said to come from a valley near this hill. The best sesamum, 

and a drug called tang-san, probably a species of adenophora, are brought from this same 

district. Shang-tang was the name of one of Ts in Chi-hvvang's forty principalities, in the 

present Shansi province. 
Jl. ^5 Shang-tu, the Ciandu of Marco Polo, the summer residence of Kublai Khan. It was 

the old Mongol capital, subordinated by Kublai to Peking, which he called Ta-tu. See 

K ai-p 'ing. This name was also given to Si-ngan fti, as the capital of the T ang dynasty. 
-t ^f5 1^ Shang-tu ho, a branch of the Lwan river. 
-tJ" ^ Shau-ni, Sheudi, the capital of the islands of Liu-kiu. See Na-pa. 
^p ^ Shau-shen, a name given to Peking on Chinese maps, as the residence of the sovereign. 
'j^ J^ pj Shau-yang shan, a moimtain in Tmfan, jdelding salt in crystals. 
"TO V^ Sheh-t'i, the Chinese name for Jupiter, occuning in their " Classic of the stars." 
f^ /J] Shen chau, a name of Shensi province, under the Tsin dynasty. See Tsin king. 

There is a sub-department of this name in Honan province. 
:^ ^ Shen-hu, the ancient serfs of China (Tsm, A.D. 280 — 404). 
g|) ^ Shen-shen, the ancient name of Pidjan, or Leu Ian. See PUi-chen. 
f^ '^ Shi-pi, Cyamba or Tsiampa, referred to the modem Saigon. It is called Lukiiooi by the 

natives. See Chen ching. 
/JIlL ^^ Shie-liau, Pahn Island, a small island near Kelung, in Formosa, formerly occupied by 

the Dutch. 
'^ ^f W\ -^ Shie-mi-Bz'-kan, Samarcand. See Sah-ma-rh-kan. 
* b l|^ Sliie-sii, Snake Island or Boomjes, a small island off the N. coast of Java, not far from 

^^ yC -^ ^ Shih-ho-chi kwoh, a " country of fire-eatere " (Parsees ?), to the south. 
^p j)y0 \^ ]p^ Shih-kia-mau-ni, Shakyamimi, or Skthja Sinha Grautama Bvddha, Gautama 

being the clan-name, and Buddha an appellation signifying the " EnHghtened." See Ju- 

lai-fiih, and Mi-leh-fuh. The word SogomonibarJxin is used by Marco Polo for Buddha. 

Sinha signifies ' hon." Muni stands for ' monk." Barkan, or Bourkan, is a Mongol 

name for God. 
^^ ^t ^'^^ kiau, Buddhism, the Dissent from Brahminism, which became in A.D. 65 one of 

the tlu'ee recognized creeds of China. See Fuh kiau. 
'W ^v 'W ^IS Shih-li-fuh-cliih, Sribodja, a kmgdom washed by the Southern Sea. 
■j /v -^ Shih-pah sang, the " Eighteen Provinces," a common collective name for Cliina. 

The British concession in Hankow is called SMh-pah-tan, ' the eighteen pieces," so as to 

avoid inconvenient reference to its ownership or occupation. 
5!" ^E i" Shih-pan-niu, a name given to Spain by the Chinese in the Straits. 
rM Wt ^ 55* Shili-pan-to cliing, Shobando, a towTi and district in the north-eastern part of 

Anterior Thibet, W. of Tsiando. 


pS8 y$ Sliia-hai, the " Deep Sea," the Pacific Ocean, in which Siii-lo is placed m Chinese 
maps. The great depth of this ocean is a tribute to the correctness of Chinese observation 

in this case. 
^1^ ^ Shin kwoh, or SMn-koku, " God-land," the donunions of the Mikado of Japan. See 

Hwang kwoh and Wei kwoh. 
)Pt ^ in Shin-nai-ch'uen, Kanagawa, a treaty-port of Japan. 
^ -^ Shin-tuh, Sm-theu, or Sindhu, India or the coimtry of the Sindhu, t/ie river, the Indus. 

The name of India comes to us originally from the Persians who changed an initial s into 

h, so that Sitidia became Hhidia or India. This name has been referred by some to Scinde. 

See T'ien tuh. 
^ffi ^ Shing king, or Liautimg, is the name of the reigning dynasty for the metropolitan 

province of Manchuria, the Hanover of China, It is bounded N. by Inner Mongolia, N.E. 
• and E. by Kirin. S.B. and E. by Corea, from which the river Yah-yuen di\-ides it. S. by 

the gulf of Liautung, and S.W. by the Great Wall. 
^ ^ ^?tC $K Shing-king pun ching, the " head garrison of Shingking," or Shingking. Its 

Chinese name is commonly put down as Fimg-t ien fu, and its Manchu name as Maukd&u 

It lies m Lai, 41^ 50' 30" N., and Long. 123° 37' E. See Fan-yang. 
-^f Shuh, an ancient tribe in Ching-tu fa, which has given its name to Sech uen. The Ta 

Kiang is sometimes called Shuh hang, or the Sech uen river. 
^L flS Shuh-chau, or Ziaku, a Buddhist priest who invented the Japanese syllabary of 48 

syllables named after him. See Hungfah. 
lip ^ jjy* Shun-t'ien fu, the metropolitan prefecture, in which Peking is situated. 
3^ ^ Shwui kwoh, the country of Sweden, sometimes called in Chinese works Lin yin or 

Chen kwoh. Norway is called Nau-wei kwoh. 
@5 ^ Si-fan, the Kolo, or black-tented Thibetans residing near the sources of the Yellow 

Eiver, and the N.W. of Sech'uen. They are regulated from Ta-ts'ien-lu, to which town 

they bring their tribute. 
^^ y^ Si hai, a vague term applied to an inland sea which may have been either the Caspian or 

Mediterranean. Two western seas are spoken of in connexion with Ta-ts in kwoh m such 

a way as to suggest that both seas were kno^vn to the Chinese by this name. 
^ ^ Si ho, an old name for a part of the Yellow Eiver running between Shensi and Shanse. 
© ^ jfl ^^'^^ ^^^^ ^ P^^"^ "^ Kansuh, where Ts'in Chi-hwang commenced buildmg the 

Great Wall. 
25 ^ Si hu, " Western Barbarians," related to the Tungusic tribes of Eastern Asia. They 

are said to have had oxen, fix>m which they cut off flesh with impunity, after the Abyssi- 
nian fashion. 
® ^ ^i kiang, pastoral tiibes from San miau, and identical with the Si hu. There is a 

Kiang-li spoken of as yielding sulphate of copper and other metalhc salts. 
@5 "^ Si-king, a mountain m Kokonor. This was one of Yii's mountains, and is placed by 

some Chinese authors in Lin-t au fu in Kansuh. 
55 ^ Si kmg, the "Western Capital," or Cochin Chma, as distmguished from Tonqum, or 


Tung-king, the "Eastern Capital." See Hau-ldng. 'iiiis name was ^ven to diang-ngan, 
or Si-ngan fu by the Chau dynasty. 
^^ ]^ Si-lan, or Ceram, one of the largest of the Molucca islands. 

® I!! 1 ''■'"'''' [the island of Celebes. 
^M ^ Si-H-wah,) 

2§ "^ Si-lu, a name of the region now forming Sbansi province, as distinguished from Tung- 
lu, a name of Shantung. 

^^ W^ ® 3E Si-mi-kwoh wang, the style of the Mahommedan ruler in Yunnan. See Tu- 

pt| ^a R^ Si-nan-i, the Laos tribes betwen Siam, Burmah, and Annam. 

S§ ^' if^ Si-ngan in, the chief city of Shensi, perhaps the Thinee of Ptolemy, the Singwj of 
Marco Polo, and one of the great marts of China. It has frequently been the capital of the 
empire, and is celebrated as containing the site of the Nestorian Tablet, stUl preserved in a 
ruined temple outside the west gate of the city. See King-chiiu fu, and Si-king. 

p^ ^^ Si-ning, in Kansxih, the great western emporium of China. The governor of Tsinghai, 
or Kokonor, resides here. It is a fu city, in N. latitude 2)1°, and E. longitude 102°, and 
is the Jiling, or SUing of Major Montgomerie. 

S§ ^ Si-t'ien, the western of the five divisions of India, as described in Chinese works. See 

^ ^^ Si-tsang, Thibet or Tubet, or Bod. This large coimtry extends from Lat. 27° to 33'' 
or 35° N. It is divided into Anterior Thibet {Ts ien Tsang\ contaim'ng eight cantons, with 
Hlassa for its capital, and Ulterior Thibet {Hau Tsayig), with its capital Teshu Hlumbu, 
and six cantons. Thibet is sometimes called Wei-tsavg (/j^J p^) in Chinese works, the 
Wei and Tsang corresponding to Anterior and Ulterior Thibet very nearly. 

■^ Bm ^ Si-wan kwoh, a country in Thibet, near the Kwanlun range, yielding precious 

^y y± SI yang, the " Western ocean," a name given to the sea beyond Cape Comorin, and 
sometimes applied to Europe, as in the Atlantic Ocean. 

^ 7^ "^ ^ Si-yang-ku-li or Kuli, Calicut. See Ku-li, 

^ 7^ ^ Si-yang kwoh, the kingdom of Portugal, as the first of the countries of Europe 
known to China. Other countries were distinguished by peculiarities of flags, &c. 

^y -^ Si-yueh, or Yueh-ei, the province of Kwangsi. 

7P9 Siang, one of the Shang capitals, now Chang-teh fu, in Honan. 

j{|@ Fp Siang chung, a name of the region now forming Hunan province. This is ^ven by 
some as JJ^Q ^pj, Siang-chau, a name of the Tsin period. 

1^ Ifj^ Siang ho, a name of the River Han from its mouth to the city of Siang-yang fu, dis- 
tant from Hankow some four hundred mUes. Opposite this city is the mart of Fan-ching, 
standing in the same relation to Siang-yang as Hankow to Hanyang. Fan-ching is not 
half the size of Hankow. f 

^. ^^ Siang-kiun, an old name of Jeh-nan in the time of Ts m Chi-hwang. 

TJt^ gg Siang-kwan, Hakodadi, a treaty-port of Japan. 


Jd i§ Siang-tan, in Hunan, Lat. 27° 52' N., and Long. 112'^ 41' E. It is one of the great 
tea and trading marts of China, situated on the river Siang or Hmg Kiang, which Funs 
into the southern part of the T'ung-ting lake. 

^J"* WT in Siau-km-ch'uen, the country on the bordei-s of Sech'uen, inhabited by a tribe of 
Miau-tsz', whose mcursions and mternecine warfare led to their extinction as a local tribe, 
imder K'ien-lung about 1772. See Ta Kin Ch uen. 

^J"* M. W ^^^^ kwan-lun, the Alps or some range of moimtains upon the Mediterranean 

/J"* ^ ^^ Siau lu-sung, Manilla. See Lu sung. 

'^y^ ^\\ \l\ Siau pieh shan, the celebrated hill in Han-chung fu, where the troops of Wu 
crossed the Han. 

/ys jig "jq^ Siau-si-yang, the Portuguese settlement of Goa. See Yin-tu-yang. 

'^J'* ^^ 7^ Siau-tung-yang, the Sea of Japan. See Tung yang. 

^^^L Sien-li, the "crafty" northern "tykes," or "fiery dogs," near the N. bend of the 
YeUow Eiver. 

^B ^S Sien-lo, the kingdom of Siam, foimed by the junction of j^, Sien, and ^g ^ij*, Lo- 
Tioh, or Lo-lo. The whole of the Malayan Peninsula was once tributary to this state. 
See Ta-ni. In the Tang time there was a Ch'ih tu kwoh, probably identical with Siam. 

^f- ^ Sien-pi, the Tungusic founders of the family who overcame the Wu-hwan kiag and 
reigned in Chkia as the Liau dynasty. See K i-tan. Dr. Oppert refers the Liau to a 
Mongohc origin. 

^\ ^^ Sih-lah, Suigapore, or Salat, the Sada of ancient geographies. See Sin-kia-po. 

^> ^ Sih-lan, Junk-seylon near Penang. 

^j ^ [Jj Sih-lan ehan, Adam's Peak in Ceylon. 

^J ^ Uj 13 Sih-lan-shan kwoh, the kingdom of Ceylon, the Lanka of Buddhist works. 
See Sz-tsz'-kwoh. Lanka is written Lang-ka in Chinese books. 

^f /pfC ^ ^ 1^ Sih-lin-koh-hh ming, one of the six ming, or corps of Inner Mongolia, liv- 
ing in the northern part of the country, beyond the Chaii-wd-tah corps, and extending 
across the northern borders. 

!m\ 3^ Sih-ti, or Sih-lam, Islam, a name used for Chinese Mahommedans in the Straits. 
See Moh-kia. 

^^ "^ Sl^ Sih-tsz'-nien, the Seranis, a name given to the Portuguese in the Straits. 

^^ yi^ Sin chau, an old name of Kwang-sin fn (Kiangsi), yielding ores of iron and copper. 

W^ ^m ^^ Sin-kia-po, Singapore, sometimes called Salat. See Sih-lah. 

^^ ^S Sin-lo, a country, related to the San-han, in the Shin-hai, to the S.E. of Corea, and 
more than 500 l{ to the S.E. of Peh-tsi. It was called Sm-lu previous to the Sung period, 
and is also sometimes called Sz'-lo. Its sovereign, sometimes a female, annexed Peh-tsf to 
its own territory, during the T ang dynasty, to whose sovereigns it presented tribute. This 
is probably the Loh-lang of Chinese writings. It is frequently mentioned in the Pen T sau 
as yielding ginseng, seaweed, fruits, aconite, silver and other substances. This is also given 
as an old name of Chang-ting hien, in Fukien province. 


j^ /fg y^ Sing-suli-hai, the name of the springs and pools at the source of the Yellow River, 
Ulvcned to coixstellations, as seen at a distance. 

mA ^. ^W Sill-yen ching, a garrison in a district of the same name in Fimg-t'ien fu, in 
Shingking, and subordinate to the head garrison of Shingking. 

^^. ( 1 1 Siueh shan, the Himalaya, or " Snowy Mountains." This is to be distinguished from 
the Siueh ling. See Pa-yen-k eh-Iah. 

^^ ( 1 1 [^ Siueh-shan-hia, the kingdom of Himatala in Turkestan. 

J@. Tw JM* Siuen-hwa fu, the name given by the Kin and Manchu dynasties to the large 
trading prefcctural city in Chihli, in Lat. 40° 38' N., and Long. 115° E. It was a sum- 
mer residence and subordinate capital of the Mongol emperors, under the name of Shang- 
tu, K ai-ping and Siuen-teh. A little to the N.E. of the city is the site of Shang-kuh-ti, the 
city of a prefecture of that name, under T sin rule. 

1^ Jj Soh-fang, an ancient division of the empire, answering to Soh-p ing fu (Shansi). 

W^ J^ 1^ Su-fang kwoh, the island of Simabawa, yielding ^^ yj^, Su-muh, or sappan-wood. 
See Li-ma. 

^mt ^ 111 Su-ho-t'u, Surat, a kingdom in Hindostan, of the time of Baber. 

^K JKi Su-jung, certaia wild tribes of the time of Yii, living near the present province of Shan- 
tung. Su chau included portions of Nganhwui, Kiangsu and Shantimg. 

■^^ 'pj jgg Sii-kii kwoh, an old name of Tung-p'ing chau in T'ai-ngan fu (Shantung). This 
is also given as the same place as Chung -tu, the to\vn in Shansi, of which Confucius was 
magistrate. Tliere is evidently some confusion between this Tung-p ing chau and Wan- 
shang (Shantung), a city of the Kin Tartars, identified by some with P'ing-luh, and still 
giving its name to a district. See P 'ing-luh. 

i^ ^\ 1^ Sii-leh kwoh, the ancient name of Kashgar, which sent lions as a present to one of 
the emperors of the After Han dynasty. 

^^ IW- Su-liih, the territory of the Sultan of Sulu in the island of Borneo, including the Ar- 
chipelago of the same name. He is said to send three ships laden with tribute once every 
five years to China. Tbey bring articles of merchandise for sale, which are admitted free 
of duty. 

W^ r I "o R^'J ^h Su-mim-tah-lah t au, the island of Simaatra. This is a modem name of 
what was called San-fuh-fgL It was also anciently called Su-wan-tah-la. 

S^ r^ <^ Su-ni-teh, the Sunnites, one of the largest tribes of Mongolia, dwelling from Chahar 
to ths N.W as far as Gobi, 500 li N. of Kalgan. > 

^[ '1^. ^ Suh-shin-shi, the Nu-chih or Tungusic ancestors of the Manchus, who derived their 
name of Kin from a tree which was said to produce gold. 

JHx aE, 5W Sui-ting ching, or Tuguchuk, the chief town of the Tourgouths in Tarbagatai, 
lying to the W. of Kuldsha the capital of I'li. 

^^ ^^ Sui-yeh, or Suiyip, one of the four states of Central Asia, tributary to China ui the 
time of the T ang dynasty. 

•A/\\ JJfc^ 4*1^ 

jpji: x^ 5% Sui-yuen ching, in Kweisui tau in Shansi, the residence of the general commanding 
the Toumet txibe of Mongols. It lies a few miles E. of Kwei-hwa ching. 


^ <-ti */RT Sung-hwa ho, the Songari river, a large tribiitary of the Sagalien or Amur. 

|3j JM ^z' hai, the "four seas," said to be inhabited by the jh^, /\ $^> "t 5Sc> 

y^ '^1 ainongst which foreigners are really included by the Chinese. 
ptj -^ ^p5 Sz'-h-mau, Sourabaya in Java. 
#if R^ M Sz'-me-li, Siberia. See Hi-kwoh. 
j/y 131^ Sz' mi n g, an old name of the district round Ningpo. This name is given to the well 

known Ningpo Joss-house at Shanghai. 
■^W ~jr 1^ Sz -tsz* kwoh, the " Kingdom of Lions," Ceylon. This is simply a translation of 

Sinhala (Singhalese), the Sanscrit name for Ceylon. See Sih-lan-shan kwoh. 
P9 "?* "^ "j^ Sz'-tsz'-pu-loh, the Mongol tribe of Durban Keoukat, to the N. of Chahar. 
[/*4 */^ Sz' tub, the '' four sluices " of China, the Yangtsz', the Yellow, tlie Hwai and the Tsi 

rivers. The Han, with other rivers, is sometimes mentioned as one of these four rivers, 

according to the dynasty. See Nu kiang. 


~J^ )\\ Ta chuen, the Yellow Eiver. See Hwang Ho. 

jK. )^ O ^^ ^^ kwoh, France. The Chinese believe that the French were Buddhists until 
converted to the Komish creed. Just as the Fuh (Buddha) of the original name, Fuh- 
lang-si, embodied this idea, so the Fah (Dharma) of the term adopted by the French 
themselves, confirms this idea. The resemblance between Eomanist and Buddhist prac- 
tices must also have suggested it. 

~/C y^ Ta hai, a term answering to the Sinus Magnus of Ptolemy, loosely applied to the 
Pacific Ocean, the China Sea, the Caspian Sea, and possibly the Mediterranean Sea. 

j^ ]^ Ta lian, a country to the E^of Wan-shin, of the same stock and firet known to China 
in the Liang dynasty. 

^^ W Ta hia, a country more than 2,000 U to the S.W. of Ta-yuen kwoh and identified by 
Biot with Bactria. This country was named after the Dahte, a warlike tribe from the 
eastern shores of the Caspian who invaded Bokhara and adjoining districts. Bactria, or 
Balkh, called Po-lo was termed the mother of cities, fiom its umivalled antiquity and splen- 
dour. An affluent of the Yellow River near Lan-chau bears the same name. 

3^ 1^1 13 Ta kang kwoh, Tagaung the ancient capital of Bimnah. This is the same place 
as Pang-hang, or Paghan. 


'^ )[1^ Ta kiang, tlie " Great Elver," the river Yang-tsz', 3,000 miles long. 

-^ ^ Ta Idn, tlie style of the Kin Tartars, ancestors of the present Manchu dynasty. 

-^ .^^ jlj Ta kin ch'uen, a name given to one of the tribes of the mountainous districts of 

Sech'uen, identical with the Miau-tsz'. They were finally reduced, after fierce resistance, 

by the armies of K'ien-lung. The country is spokea of as Liang Kin Ch uen, there being 

a Siau Kin Ch uen. 
^ J^ Ta king, or Da-kliln, the Deccan in India. 

-j^ ^ '^ yX Ta-kia-sha-kiang, the Brahmaputra Eiver. See Ya-lu-tsang-pu. 
~)v \^ Ta ku, a unportant military post at a village on the southern side of the Peiho, near 

its mouth. It was at this point that the Yellow Eiver anciently found its way into the 

Gulf of Chihli, probably by the channel of the Peiho. 
^ ^ H^ Ta-li fu, a departmental city in Yunnan, in Lat. 25'' 44' N., and Long. 100=" 

21' E. See Si-mi-kwoh wang. This is said by some to be the Yachi of Marco Polo, 
3^' Q tIC Ta-lu-sung, Spain. See Sliih-pan-niu. 
^X ^ ^ Ta-mi kwoh, a country on the " western borders." 
/^ ^ y^ Ta ming hai, the Pacific Ocean, whose " clear " and deep watei s attracted the 

attention of the Chinese. 
jX. J^ Ta-ni, or Patani, a coimtry in the Malay peninsula, a tributary of Siam. The southern 

part of this peninsula is sometimes spoken of as Ko-lo-fursha. 
yX ^^ Ta pan, Osaka, a treaty-port in Japan. 
jX ^y |X[ Ta pieh shan, the Hanyang hill, commonly called the Kivei sftan. See Siau 

pieh shan. 
•fT ^0E ^ ^& 5% Ta-sang wu-la ching, a garrison in Kiiin, a little to the N.E. of Xirin 

ula, in Lat. 44" 05' N., and Long. 126° 10' E. 
~7K. "^ Ta-shih, the Tajiks, of Persian origin, and of the Shiite sect, dwelling in Tiau-cU on 

the slopes of the Belur Tagh. They were confounded with the Arabs by the "Chinese 

of the T ang dynasty, and it is probable that more than one of the many countries con- 
quered by them before they were subjugated by their Sunnite adversaries, were called after 

them. Chiistians in Persia were often called " Teizai," a name possibly connected with 

yX. ^ l^ Ta-shih kwoh, Arabia. See T'ien-fang kwoh, and T'ien-t ang. 
jX. ® ^^ "^Si-^i yang, a name formerly applied to Em-ope, but now confined to Portugal. 
jX ® ^^ V^ Ta si yang hai, the Atlantic Ocean. 
vT Hlf io^ Ta-tsien-lu, an important town in Sech'uen, in Lat. 30° 08' 24" N". Through 

this town the traftic between Chuaa and the tribes of Kokonor passes, aud the oflBcer 

who presides over nine tribes of the Tu Sz resides here. 
ys^ ^ Ta ts 'in, the Eoman empire, or some portion of it as Syria or Palestine. See Hai-si 

JK ilW IS Ta-tsing kwoh, the oflScial style of China, under the present dynasty. 
3^ §|S Ta-tu, the name given to Peking by Kublai Khan, in 1272. He residal there in winter 

making Ciando, or S/umff-iu, his summer residence. This name was sometimes given to 


Siuen-hwa fu. See Siuen-hwa fu. 
/^ N Ta-t'ung, the Tanduc of Marco Polo, called also Ta t^ung lu during Mongolian rule. 
It was a part of Shansi and Pehcliihli, which lay a little to the west of Lacking, between 
the double portion of the Great Wall It was considered the key of the empire. It is 
now the Ta-t ung fii of Shansi, and was the seat of a mint, the coins issued from which 
are marked T^ung. 

JK 1% ^ 'S Ta-wan-kuh-loh, a name of Kweichau in the Mongolian period. 

yC :9R; IMI Ta ying kwoh. Great Britain. England is sometimes spoken of as Ying-lih-li. 

^ ;^ Ta yueh, the national style of the former kings of Cocliin China. 

JK ^ ^. Ta-yueh-chi, the "Lunar Eace" or Getae, believed to be the Indo-Scythians of 
western wiiters. They conquered the country of the Indus, and their descendants are said 
by Klaproth to remain in these coimtries to this day as the Yuts, or Juts. See Wu-tien, 
and Yueh-ti. 

JK y^ IS Ta-yuen kwoh, the "Country of great pasturages," identified with Kokand or 
Ferganah, fertile and populous from the flow of the Oxus aud Jaxartes through it. 
Chmese works make Ta yuen 12,500 li from Si-ngan fu, and 2,000 U or more to the S.W. 
they place Ta Ma. From this country many diugs and fruits were brought by Chang K'ien 
of the Han period. 

58 ® Pj^'J Wi Tah-lai-lah-ma, the Dalai Lama, the Pope of Thibet. 

^n" m ~^ Wii Tah-rh-ld cliing, Tm:k or Tartar city, a garrisoned town lying E. of Hi, on 
tae I'll river. It Ls named from a momitain near it. 

^o ^ Gi ^ O WL Tah-rh-pa-ha-tai ching, Tarbagatai or Tashtava. An important 
ganison and town on the frontiers of I'h, in Lat. 47" N. The district of the same name is 
boimded IS[. by the Hassacks or Kirghis of Independent Tartary, and E. by Cobdo. It 
is inhabited by immigrant Tourgouths and other tribes from the steppes. ^^ j^ ^, 
Tah-tah-rh, is given as a name of a subordinate Turkic tribe, or Hiung-nu. 

^* yf* ^ Tah-shih-kan, Tashikan or Tasigan, a town of Western Tartary, m Lat. 43° 03' 
N., and Long. 08° 45' E. (Biot). This word :^, tah may be written f^. It probably 
refers to the Tartars or Tatars as fg« ^g^, Tah-p'ang, or " pitchers of tents. " 

^^ ^S Tah-tan, the Tatars, a Mongohc race dwelling near the Lake Bouyir in Eastern Mon- 
golia. The term has latterly been applied to Tmkic or Turanian peoples, like the word 

^^ wSL Tah-tsu, or )g ^ ^, Tah-tah-rh, the Tartars or Tungusic Manchus. The word 
is applied to Mongols, and is so mixed up with other opprobrius epithets, as J^ ^^g -^, 
Sdiir-tah-tsz\ ("horsey Tartars"), that it is not used. ^^ ^ , Tah-tsz' are perhaps the ori- 
ginal characters intended to be used, and foimded upon one of the Tartar forms of obei- 
sance, in which the foot is stmck upon the ground, and the gusue previously worn in 
front, is simultaneously thrown behind. The ^ ^^ ^j^, Tai-ch'ih-wu, ^ ^|J, K eh- 
lieh, and j^ j^ ^, Tah-tah-rh are mixed up with the Mu)ig-ku, who are said to have 
united to form the Yuen, or Mongolian nation. See Mung-ku. 

"^ ^ Tai kAvan, the Tycoon or Shiogoon, the Japanese generalissimo. See Kung fang. 


y^ ^^ T ai-nan, or Dainam, the national style of the kingdom of Cochin China. See Ta 

y^ ^^ y^ T'ai-ping yang, the "Pacific Ocean," as named in foreign compilations. 

"y^ -^ Tai-tsz', the Emperor's heir, also called, j)^ ^f 0-ko. 

*^ ^f^ Tai-wan, the island of Formosa, with iLs capital city, Tai-wan fu, a treaty-port. This 
name of Terrace Bay " was fii"st applied to the group of islands on the western side of 
the present large island. The Japanese who made some efforts to settle there in 1G20 
called it Tti/ca Sago, high sand." It is divided into four hien and five ting districts so 
far as the Chinese possessions extend. 

j^ i^ T'ai-yiien, the Great Plain of China. T^ai-yuenfu is the chief prefecture of Shansi. 

■^I' Tan, a tribe of Miautsz' sometimes called Tarirman, or Hu-i. See Tan-kia. 

■^^ ^ Tan-kia, the boat-population of Canton, a distinct race of aborigines. 

f^ {^ Tan kwoh, a country to the N.E. of Ta-t sin kwob, on the road to which it lay. 
Tana is given by Pauthier as a name of Bombay. 

iW ^^k. Tan-mei, or Tan-mo-li-ti, the name of a country at the mouth of the Ganges, near 
the modem Tamlook. 

/^ ^C Tan-shwui, Tamsui, or Tan-shwui-ting, the best port in Formosa, in Lat. 25' 10' X. 

7T 7T (^ Tan-tan kwoh, a country of India to the S.E. of the department of Tsin-chau. 
The name of Tan-tan is used for Bantam in Java. 

qp "J^ Tan-yu, or Shan-yu, the name of the king or of the kingdom of the Hiung-nu. 

y j[^ Tan-ying the " single eagle," a term applied to the flag and kingdom of Pnissia. 

^ j\\ Tang chau, a name of Tangut given by Pauthier. There was also in Tangut a 

-^£ /ii n^ Tang-chau fu, the prefectural city and port in Shantung, inserted in the treaty 
of 1858, but exchanged for the town of Yen-tea, confounded with Chi-fau, or Chefoo, a 
harbour in the same bay. See Lai-tsz' kwoh. 

^^ ■^ Tang-hiang, a tribe descended from the San Miau, giving their name to the next. 

g ^ Tang-hing, a part of Kansuh, answering to the present Fuh-ldang hien. 

«W Tw Ib. Tang-keh-li, the Tengri Tagh or celestial mountains. See T'ien shan. 

^ ^ i^ ^X '/$ T ang-nu Wu-liang-hai, one of the districts dependent on Uliasutai, in- 
habited by the Wdianghai, or Uriankai tribes, and the Kalkas and Tourgouths of the 
Tang-nu mountains. This tract of country Ues N.E. of Cobdo, N. of the Saimoin and 
Dzassaktu Klianates, and is divided from Russia by the Altai mountains. The govern- 
ment of these tribes is administered by 25 subordinate military officers. 

j|g [J_| T ang-shan, the name of a mountain in ChihU. This is also a common name for China 
in general use in Java, the Straits, the Sandwich Islands and wherever Chinese emigrants, 
called T'ang-jin, are located. The name arose from the fact that the first settlers in Java 
left China dming the Tang period. 
flW ^a /H Tang-yueh chau, Mouhnein in Burmah. 

'1^ ^^ T'au-ho, a place in the China Sea named after its king, and answering to Mindoro. 
•^ ^ T au-i, a name of the wild inhabitants of Liautung, Tarakai, Yesso, and perhaps Japan. 


yj Wi ^v Tau-kin-ldaii, or Tiau-kin-kiati, the " sect wliicli cuts away the sinew, " a Chinese 

name for the Jews. See T ien kiau and Kiu kiau. 
[^ ^' T'au-t'u, a Tartar country yiekling excellent horses called after this northern region. 

Their principal value was their power of making long journeys. 
^^ ^^ I^ Teh-moh-chin, Temiigin, commonly called Genghis (the greatest) Khan. 
;^^ Pp y^ Ti-chung hai, the Mediterranean Sea, as named in a modem Chinese work, the 

Kau-hm-mung-ldeu, to which those who desire to coin new geographical terms would do 

well to resort. 
j^ _J^ Tiau-chi, a country bordering on the Caspian Sea, mentioned in connection with the 

journey westward of Kan Ying, a general under the orders of Pau ckm. This coimtry 

was inhabited in all probability by Tajiks, traders " of Pereian and Arabian extraction. 
^^ KH ^^ Tieh-ling hien, a district of Fung-t'ien fu in Shingking, in Lat. 42° 25' N., and 

Long. 123° 45' E. 
^^ rpg ^ ^ Tieh-mau-tsz'-wang, a title for bravery ^ven to Mongolian and Manchurian 

princes, reminding one of the order of the Iron Crown" of Lombardy. See Tieh-muh-er. 
^ P^ ^ Tieh-men-kwan, the "iron-gate Pass," in Lat. 37° 35' N., and Long. 118° 12' 

E. is the port of the Yellow River, some twenty miles from the pomt where the river taking 

possession of the bed of the Ta-tsmg river, pours itself into the Gulf of Pehchihli, as of old. 
^^ /^ yu Tieh-muh-er, Timur, the Lame. The word "timur" in the Tchagatai (Tartar- 
Turkish) dialect signifies iron, " as does the Chinese tiek " It is probable that the 

title of Tieh-onau mentioned above is derived from Timur. 
y^ §^ T'ien-chau, the Heavenly dynasty, " or the empii-e and sovereignty of China. 
^> ^E ^v T'ien chii kiau, the Romish rehgion. It was sometimes called Shih-tsz'-iiau, or 

the ' Religion of the cross. " 
^ ~, ^C. T'ien chuh kiau, the " Syrian religion, " a name for the Jewish faith in China. 

See T'ien-tuh. 
^ ^^. !^ T'ien chuh kwoh, Syria and India are included under this name originally applied 

to India only. See T'ien-tuh. This country was divided into five kingdoms by the 

Chinese, corresponding to the five fang, or points. See Chung-t ien kwoh. 
5v ~/J @i T'ien-fang kwoh, a name for Mecca and Arabia Felix or Yemen. 
^^ ~~v\ T'ien hia, or P vA^in-Ua, the Chinese Empire, as distinguished from Chung kivoh, the 

"Mother country," Honan, &c. 
^ jp^ T'ien ho, the Milky Way. See Yun-han. 

JJiA ^^ T'ien kiau, or Heen Uau, the Jewish faith. See Ts'ing-chin kiau. 
^^ ^ T'ien kwoh, the rebel kingdom proclaimed in 1851 by Hung Siu-tsiwn, the Tai-ping 

wang. The words ^ ^, T^ien chau, and ^i. ^p, Clieng ping are required to be used 

in all essays and documents, where T'ien kwoh and Tai-p ing used to be spoken of. See 

Yueh fei. 
IM 1^ Tien kwoh, one of the " contending states, " answering to Yimnan provmce. 
^ [Jj T'ien shan, the ' Celestial mountains, " the Tengii Tagh of the Tw-ldueh (Turks), and 

Hiung-nu. The mean parallel of latitude oscillates between 40° 40' and 43° N. latitude. 


The range is eiglit times as long as the Pyrenees, is volcanic, and rich in metalliferous 

ores. See Nan shan. 
5'c mJ I^ ^ '^'^*^'^ ^^^° ^^^ ^^^5 *^^ " circuit south " of the T'ien shan, between this range 

and the Kwanlun mountains. It is called Sin Kiang or Hivui Kicwg. 
^ [Jj ^(j ^ 'l'''ien shan peh lu, Songaria, the "circuit north of the T'ien shan," lying 

between Long. 72° and 88^ E., and Lat. ^T to 49° N. 
^ ^ T'ien-t'ang, Arabia Fehx. See Ta-shih kAvoh. 

^ ^/^ T'ien tsin, the port of Peking. This is also the name of the constellation Cygnus. 
^ -^ T'ien tsz', the Emperor of China. These two characters signifying the Son of 

Heaven, " are identical with those given for the Sora Mikado of Japan, who claims equal 

honours with the Chinese emperor. 
^ ^ T'ien-tu, an imaginary place in the Southern Sea, or the coast of Fukien, connected 

with the Queen of Heaven, or with Kwan-yin. Nimneries have this name in some cases. 
^ -^ T'ien-tuh, India. See Chau-sien-t'ien-tuh. This character is derived from Shin-tuh 

{^ -f^, which, in the judgment of some, prunarily stood for Scinde, as it is placed to 

the S.E. of Ta Hia, or Bactria by Cliinese Avriters. 
^ j|g T'ien-tuh, India. This name has given lise to some confusion. This tuh has been 

exchanged with the tuh of the previous name, and the tuh of the present term having been 

written in the grass character ;^, has given rise to a third term j^ ^^., T ien chuh for 

India, not Sjiia. 
^^ Tih, the red and white Tykes, or " fiery dogs, " at the nortliern bend of the Yellow Kiver. 

See Sz' hai. 
?Sr Tw / ii Tih-hwa chau, in Songaria, soraetunes called Urumtsi. It is now attached to 

the province of Kansuh, and divided into four districts. 
^i ^g Ting-liau, a region bordering on Corea. 

^ Wb. '^ To-lo-man, tribes in Kwangsi, and between that and Annam. 
^ IW ^ ^ To-lun-noh-rh, Tolon nor, " Seven lakes, " the great entrepot of the trade of 

the Simnites, on the southern slope of the In Shan. 
-^ T^ T'siang-tan, an island in the Flores Sea, yieldmg fragrant woods. 
^ Jif I Ts'i chau. See Tsi-nan fu. 
W (S "^^'^ kwoh, an ancient state in Shantung, including Tsi-nan fu, Ts'ing-chau fu and 

Wei hien. 
^ mi ^ Tsi-lung chmg, Dsilung, a district and town on the southern frontier of Ulterior 

Thibet, and W. of Nielam. 
^ ]^ ll^ Tsi-nan fu, the premier fu and capital of Shantung, also called ^ yij^, Tsi-chau. 

This was called Ts'i-nan kwoh in the beginning of the Han dynasty. 
7^ )^ Ts'i-ti, an old name of Yang-kuh hien (Tung-o-hien of the Han), Shantung. 
^ W ^ ^ ^ Tsi-tsi-ba-rh ching, the large town of T sitsihar hotun hi Hehlungkiang, 

the third division of Manchuiia, often called Tsitsihar. It lies on the Nonni branch of 

the Songari river, hi Lat. 47° 20' N., and Long. 123° 30' E. It is the seat of the pro- 
vincial government, and a place of some trade. 


tJ^ ^ Tsiang-kiiTn, the Chinese and Japanese name for the Shiogoon. See T ai-kwan. 

0^ LLf Tsiau-shan, the island miscalled " Silver Island, " two miles below Chinkiang, on the 
Yangtsz'. The Chinese characters signify Watch-tower mount, " all islands being des- 
cribed as hills imder the term [Jj, sltcin, or -^, tcm. 

f^ ^^ ^ Tsiau-yuu-shi, a tribe of dwarfs on the south-west of China in the Tang time. 

]|yf [_L| ^^ Tsien-shan-chai, the military station of Casa Branca, near Macao, in the Canton 

IIq ^ Ts'ien-tsang, Anterior Thibet, sometimes called Wei i'^)- See Wei-tsang. 

H. ^^ Ts'ie-moh, a coimtiy in Central Asia, yielding excellent grapes. 

-^ '^]>| Ts'ih-chau, the " Seven islands, or Paracel reefs in the China Sea. 

^^ Ts in, the name given to China before the dynasty of that name. It occurs in the Laws 
of Menu, B.C. 1000. This name was probably the origin of the Sinae or Things of the 

^^ Pp Ts'in-chung, the province of Shensi. 

^^ ^pj Ts in chau, one of the principalities or prefectm^es of the Ts 'in time, with Singan fu for 
its capital under the name of Shang-tu. It is now the name of a sub-department in 

^^ ^^ Ts 'in-king, an old name of Shensi province. 

■g :HB Tsin-ti, the name given in the Chau period to Tai-yuen fu and P 'ing-yan-fu in 
Shausi prosdnce. There was a g" 5^, Tsin-ching, in Tseh-chau (Shansi) also dur- 
ing the Chau dynasty, and the capital of the usiupers ^^, Han, ^^, Wei, and ^^, 

■jpl, Ts'ing, the Manchu "pure" dynasty, and its language. See Ta-tsing kwoL 

P5 yW Ts'ing-chau, one of Yii's nine pro^iuces, including the present Shantung, with parts of 
Liautung and of Corea. 

'^ I^ ^ Ts 'ing-chin kiau, the " doctrine of puiifcy and tnith, " This is the legend Avritten 
over the door of the Jewish sinagogue at Kai-fung fu. The tenn is also used for Mahom- 
medan mosques ('^ 1^ ^). See Yih tsz'-loh-nieh-tien. 

0R in Ts'ing-chuen, a name of the Hanyang city and neighbourhood. There is a Hfg )\\ 
^, Ts 'ing-ch uen koh, at the foot of the Hanyang hill, facing the ^ ^ |^, Hwang- 
hoh-lu on the Wuchang side. 

p^ ^K T'sing-tsi, a poetical name of Shantung, compounded of that of two of the principal 
prefectures, Ts'ing-chau fu and Tsi-nan fu. This was formerly a favomite way of build- 
ing up names of provinces. 

f^ j^ Ts'ing-hai, the "Aziu-e Sea," or Kuku nor, (commonly written Kokonor), the "Blue 
lake, " a name for what is properly a part of Mongolia, as inhabited by Mongols of the 
Tourgouth, Hoshoit and Kalkas tribes. It is sometimes called Si-fan, Si-yili, Surfan or 
Tangut. Several large lakes are found writhin its limits, after the largest of which it is 

^ jfl IfJ T'siu en-chau-fu, the city of Chinchew near Amoy. It is the Taitun of Marco Polo. 

"^^ Tsoh, a tribe of I' on the S.W. near the Yen-yuen lien (Sech'uen) of the present day. 


^ Il§ ^ Tsiuig-keh ching, Dsiinggar, a town and district of Ulterior Thibet W. of Dsilung, 
near the soutliem frontier. 

^M ^S Ws PI T'sung-li ya-men, the "Board of Control" at Peking, commonly called the 
" Foreign Office, " a name more appropriate for the Li-fan-yuen, which see. 

^E\ ^^ T'sung ling, the "Onion" or Belur tagh range of mountains, including the Karakorum 
moimtains, together fonning the connecting links between the T ien shan and the Kwan-lun 

■^ ^ /^ Tsung-ming hien, the district formed during the Yuen dynasty upon the deltoid 
island at the mouth of the Yangtsz'. It is 32 miles in length and from 5 to 10 miles in 
breadth, and has been formed since the 14th century by upheaval of the coast-line and 
alluvial deposits. It suppoils a numerous population. The little town has been removed 
some five different times from the freaks of the ocean. The island is sometimes called 
Kianr/slieh, river's tongue, " and Hai-men, door of the sea. " 

^ ^ ^ "^s^' ^1^ ching, the "forbidden city of the raddy dawn," the Imperial residence in 
the Nui ching or Tartar city, forming the northern portion of Peking. It is about two 
miles in circumference. Eed is an imperial colour, and has been changed with black or 
yellow, according as the fortunes of the imperial families or founders of dynasties have come 
under the influences of fire, water or earth. 

^ ^^ Tsz' seh, the " red boundary, " a name of the Great Wall, from the red colour of the 
earth used in many places for its construction. See Wan-li-chang- ching and Kiu-seh. 

fj* jj^ Tsz'-ying, or Ma-ying, a name applied to Austria from the double eagle on its flag. 

PX ^^ Tu-fan, the Turfans, or the Thibetans. See T u-peh-teh and Wu-sz'-tsang. 

~n 3^ 4nF Tu-heh-teh, the name of a tribe of Mongols, Uving N.W. of Shingking. 

PX "^ ^. Tu-kuh-hwan, a Tungusic tribe, originally in Liautung, but who migrated to Yin 
slian in Kokonor, in the Si Tsin time. 

^}S fL Tti kiang, a name of the Yangtsz', or rather of the Min kiang, formerly considered by 
the Chinese as the main stream of the Ta Kiang. 

^^ 7^ T'u-lin, a towTi in Ngan-si, or Cabul, visited by Chang K ien of the Han dynasty. 

it W ^q i^ Tu-lu-fan ting, the ting district of Turfan, now included in the district of 
Barkul, or Chinsi fu in Kansuh. The chief town is situated on the confines of the Great 
Deseit, south of the 'tien shan, in Lat. 42^ 40' N. and Long. 90° 48' E. This district is 
noted for its excellent wool, grown on the ^J*ien shan slopes. It was formerly called IIo 
chdu, the ' fire district, " from its volcanic character. There is still an active volcano 
midway between the meridians of Turfan and Pidjan. See Ho chau. 

T. ^/C 4^ Tu-meh-teh, the Toumets of Kuku koto, a tribe of Mongols h'ving N. of Shansi, 
and N.E. of the Ortous. They are not included in Inner Mongolia, but nominally in 
Shansi, and governed by a general residing at Sui}Tien ching. There are Toumets iu 
the north ofPehchihli. 

{^ Yh t^ T u-peh-teh, or Tu-po, a name of Tubet or Thibet. It was so called from the Tu, 
a foreign tribe which overran the present country of Thibet in the 6th century. See Wu- 


^M '^ I® Tu-p'o kwoh, a kingdom in Java whope capital was near Bantam, and extended 
its rule over the adjacent islands. This has possibly been confounded by the Chinese 
with the ancient Idngdom of Taprobane, assigned to Ceylon or Sumatra. 
^P UX ^m r I Tu-po-lo-men, the country of the Turcomans or Tajiks. This is referred by 
some to Kerman, now an eastern province of Pema, celebrated for the Kermanese wool of 
its sheep and goats, thick and silky, but not capable of taldng that brilliant colour which 
gives the charm to the genuine Cashmere shawl, made from a wool called pmhm. Kerman 
is the ancient Carmania. 
T. ^ ^ v^ op Tu-rh-hu-teh pu, the Tourgouths. Tliis Mongol tribe resides principally 
in Kokonor, to the S. of the Azure Sea, " and with the Hoshoits, Kalkas and other tribes 
around this sea, or lake, are an-anged under 29 standards. They are controlled by a 
Manchu general residing at Sining fu in Kansuh. There are alio the Tourgouths of the 
Tangnu mountains in western Mongolia, and a small band in Songaria. A large number 
emigrated from Eussia into China in 1772, and are located in Tarbagatai and Cobdo. 
They had been originally driven oat of Cobdo by Arabdan, Khan of the Songares, and 
were induced to return by imperial invitation. 

w^ yu Tp Tu-rh-keh, Turkey as named in Japanese maps. The Chinese equivalent is 

^ ^ fQ ^ Tu-rh-peh-teh, the Tourbeths or Diirboths, a tribe of Mongols livbg in the 
extreme east of Inner MongoHa, on the Nonni river. 

ypE yC ^ Ta-wan-siu, the name of the Mahommedan ruler in Yunnan. He reigns at Ta- 
li fu on the borders of Burmah. See Si-mi-kwoh wang. 

^ 'f^ Tiih-ho, the "turbaned" tribes of Tui'kesfan. 

^^ W ^E Tuh-ho-lo, Turkestan, or " the land of the tarbaned race." 

^ jj^ Tuh-kiueh, the name of the Turkic tribes or Hiung-nu during the T ang time. They 
wore helmets, as their name signifies, and were skilful in working in iron. Their country 
included the Avhole range of the Altai mountains, and stretched from tlie Amur river to 
the Caspian sea. 

® -5" P Tuh-shih k'au, a pass m the Great Wall, m Lat. 41= 19' 20" N. 

1^ j^ Tuli-yih, a name for Austria on Japanese maps, as one of the Luh-ti kwoh, or Six 
despotic empires " of the world. 

^ ^ Tun-sun, a place to the S. of Burmah, answering to Tenasseiim. 

Jt^ ^ Tim-yang, a name of the city of Hanyang. See Tsing-ch'uen. 

^ '/^ Tung hai, the " Eastern Sea," off the south-east coast of China. This was formerly 
the name of the present Yen-ching hien in Shantung. 

^ yft M Tnng-hai-tau, the Tocaido or gi'cat military highway in Japan, extending from 
Nagasaki to Hakodadi. 

^ i^ Tung-lm, the Tungusic tribes of Manchmia and Siberia. The word Im may have 
had the same origin as the word "manna," "what is it"? Foreigners bringing new and 
strange things, puzzled the Chmese as to A\here they came from. Hence the word hu, 
signifying how? whence? or what? may have come to be extendetl to all foreigners and 


their manufactures or natural productions. Colocyntli and linseed among medicines, and 
parsnips, walnuts, onions and pepper, articles of food, have this piefix of Ini. 

y^ ^ Tung king, the " Eastern Capital, " or, to distinguish it from Si King, or 
Cochin China. The kingdom of Tonq^iin existed as a separate state in the time of Marco 
Polo, who calls it Aniu. Its capital is Kesho. Kai-fimg fu is sometimes spoken of as 
Tung-king. See Timg Idng ching. 

^^ ^ ^^ Timg king cliing, in Shingking, a garrison subordinate to Shingking pim ching. 
This was the old capital of Liautung under the Ming nile, when that province was much 
smaller than the present Shingking. Some of this province liad previously included Corea, 
and parts of the old province of Tidng-chau, portions of which are now submerged by the 
alterations of the sea-level. See Ts ing-chau and Yu-i. 

^ Eg ^ Tung kwan, an unportant town and fortress in Lat. 34° 50' N. and Long. 110° 05' E. 
at the southern bend of the Yellow Eiver. It is called the key of Shensi province. 

^^ ^ Tung-lu, the name of the present department of Yen-chau fu in Shantung, but for- 
merly applied to the whole province. See Si-lu. 

^^C PJ Tnng-miau, an old name of Shantmig. 

^^ j^ Tung-nan, a distinguishing name applied to the Sung dynasty from its geographical 

y^ E^ Tung-ning, the name of Tai-wan fu, a treaty-port in Fonnosa, as the capital of 

y^ |)^ /^ Tung-o Men, the old name of Yang-hih Men in Shantung, durmg the Han period, 
from whence comes the 0-tiau, or ass's glue, as it is called by some. It is said to be 
made from the water of a well which contains a gelatinous principle, Hke that of Bareges 
in France, and is used as a mUd purgative and deobstruent. Deer's horn and cow's hide 
are often added to sopliisticate the glue, which is reputed to be nomishing and astringent. 
See A-yih. 

^^ 7nl ^P Tung-p u-chai, Cambodia. See Chin-lah. 

<l^ J^ fiv) Tung-ting hu, the Tung-ting lake in Hunan (a distiict lu under the Sung), the 
largest of the five great lakes of China. The old province of HuLwang, formed under 
the Mongols, was redivided into Hunan ("south of the lake"), and Hupeh ("north of ihe 
lake "), as a more convenient arrangement, or rather a return, necessitated by the position 
of the dangerous lake, which especially interfered with attendance upon the literary examina- 
tions at the capital, Wuchang. Hupeh province is often called Ngoh sang. See 

^^ III Tung t u, a Mahommedan name for China. See Ch'ih-ni. 

1^ 3v ie T ung-wan kwan, the name of the schools connected with the l*sung-li yamen, 
in which the Chinese and Manchus are taught European languages. 

^^ y^ Tung yang, the "Eastern Ocean," or the Pacific Ocean, including the Yellow Sea, the 
straits of Corea and the Sea of Japan. Tliis name is often apphed to Japan and the 
Japanese. This name also occurs as the old name of Ning-teh Jden in Fukien province. 

^ -^ Tung-yueb, Canton province. See Yueb, and Yueh-tung. 



5^ U cliing, a fortified town on an island placed near Batavia, on Clnnese maps of the 
Straits, and sometimes called Omnst. 

i" 4mF Ung-niu-teh, the Ouniots, a tribe of Mongols, living on the borders of Pehchihli, 
N. of the Hifung gate in the Great Wall 


pip ^ Wai-fan, the foreign tiibes ui MongoHa, I'li, Cobdo and Kokonor. These were also 
spoken of as Fan-fuh. 

^r ^ Wai-i, the external barbarians including all foreign comitries. See Nui-i. 

pC 1^ Wan klang, a name of the Yang-tsz'-kiang, near the prefectural city of Kwei-chau in 
Sech uen. This is to be distinguished from the Wan-ho, a river in Shantung. 

■^ W jK Wan-ku-lu, Bencoolen in Sumatra. See Wang-kiu-li. 

3C ^ Wan-lai, a name applied to a part of the island of Borneo. See P o-lo kwoh. Se- 
veral nations of marked " savages were placed by the Chinese to the E. of their empire. 
See Wan-shin. 

^ M :M iS Wan-li-chang-ching, the Great Wall of Chma. See Tsz'-seh. 

£^ _il Wan shang, the name of a district of Kwao-chau fu (Shantung) of the present time. 
It received its name from the Kin Tartars. It is referred, in the Kwang-yii-ki, to the 
situation of Chung-tu, of the state of Lu, and is made to correspond with the districts of 


P'ing-luh, Peh-tsi, and Loh-p'ing of the Han dynasty. There is evidently some confusion 
with Tung-p'ing chau. See Chimg-ta, P'ing-Iuh, Tang-p ing chau, and Sn-ku kwoh. 

^C ^ Wan-shin, a country of "marked" savages more then 7,000 li to the N.E. of Japa: 
It was rich in precious stones and metals. Tamulo-Japanese nations on the E. for ages 
afflicted the Chinese. 

^ ^/QC ^ p^ /^ y^ Wan-shwui-chau-tung-ta-hai, a Chinese name or expression, applied 
to the Pacific Ocean, from the tendency of the current of the sea outside the Japan islands 
to the E. See Wei-lu. 

iffl. ?H Wan-suh, an ancient name of Aksu in Chinese Turkestan. 

^ 7T Wan-tan, Bantan in Java. See Tan-tan kwoh. 

^ ^^ ^5 Wan-ts'iuen-tu, the Ming style for what is now Siuen-hwa fu (Chihii). See Siuen- 
hwa fu, 

JjM. ^^ Wan-ts men, an old name of Kansuh. 

Xffl. §5 ^ iS Wan-tu-sz'-tan, a Chinese name of Hindostan. See Han-tu-sz'-tan. 

-p[ ^|ZI Wang-jin, or Wonin, a descendant of Kau-tsn, the fii^st emperor of the Han dynasty, 
who accompanied some Japanese from Corea, and introduced the Chinese language and 
literature into Japan. 

ae >\ J& Wang-kiu-li, Bencoolen in Sumatra. See Wan-ku-lu. 

•-p -^ Wang shie, Eajagriha, a royal city on the Ganges. 

3E j^ Wang-ting, the court of the sovereign of the Tuk-kiueh, or Turks, held at Urumtsi, 
during the 5th century. See Wu-lu-moh-tsL 

^^ jig Wei kwoh, or Wa koku, ihe name used by both the Chinese and Japanese for Japan. 
Wei is read Yamato in Japanese books. See Jeh-pun kwoh. A distinction is sometimes 
made in ancient books, between Jeh-pun kwoh and Wei kwoh, 

^B 1^ Wei-lu, a name for the sea to the E. of Japan and the LiuMu islands, so-called from 
the easterly current setting up here, as described in Chinese works. This is also sometimes 
called Kuro Siwo, " Black Stream. " 

y^ ^^ Wei-nan, a name of Shensi province in the early Han period. 

1^ ^^ Wei-nu, the Japanese. This name was used in the Ming period by Chinese women 
to ten-ify their children, so fearful and frequent were the invasions of these Normans of the 
East upon the whole coastline of China, See Wei-tsz', and Wei-yang. 

^ ^^ Wei-tsang, Thibet. See Si-tsang 

1^ -?-• Wei-tsz', an opprobrious term first used for the Japanese, after their pretended subjec- 
tion, and now commonly applied by the Pekingese to foreigners in general. It is some- 
times confounded by foreigners with the more definite ycmg-kwei-tsz' . 

^»] B^ 1^ Wei-t'u kwoh, an old name of Ushi, in Chinese Turkestan. See Wu-shih ching,- 

V^ 1^ Wei-yang, a name referred to Japan, or some prince of the country, mentioned in the 
account of Koxinga in the Tai-wan-chL 

3f^ ^^ Wei-yang, a name of Yang-chau fu during the middle period of the Ming, It was 
subsequently changed to the latter. It is one of the best traits of the Manchu emperors, 
that they refrained from aU wanton change and confusion of old names. 


•^^ Wu, a kingdom including in Confucios's time the N. of Chekiang (Hu-cban, Yen-cliau and 
Kia-hing chau) province and the southern part of Kiangsu. In tlie triarchy of the San 
kwoh it included the San Kiang provinces, or 61 prefectures. The kmgdom of Wu was 
merged into that of the conqueiing state of Yueh in the same provinces. 

j^ ^iS ^ Wu-c'ha kwoh, Orissa in India. 

i^ ^i ^ Wu-chang kwoh, the Buddhist country of Uchang ("the garden"), near the 

■7^ / li ^^^^^ chau, an old name of Jau-chau fu, in Kiangsi. 

J^ )M 1^ Wu-ch'i kwoh, a country in Asia Minor, or Eastern Europe, mentioned in con- 
nexion with "^ ^^, Ta Ts'in, or Ta Ts'in kwoh, commonly understood to refer to the 
Roman empii-e. It is however just possible that Greece, or Asiatic colonies, under the 
name of Achaia, is indicated by this name. Otherwise Greece was unknown to China. 

•n. ^^ Wu chin, a term misinterpreted as referring to the " live marts" of China. There are 
very many chin, or marts " in China, but four, and not five, are commonly spoken of as 
remarkable, rather than as simply large trading towns. These are Fuh-shan (Canton), 
King-teh chin (Kiangsi), Han-chin, or Hankow (Hupeh), and Chii-shien chin (Honan). 
The Wu chin, were the five guardian hUls " of the ancient empire in Yii's time, — ^namely 
j^ LLf, Ni shan (Shantung) on the E., ^ ^^ [Jj, Hwui-k'i shan (Chekiang), on the 
S. /|g {J_[, Hoh shan (Nganliwui), in the centre, -^ (J_[, Wu shan (Shensi), on the 
W. and ^ M ^ LIj, I'-wu-lu shan (Shingkmg). 

i^ 3^ ^p ^^ Wu-chu-moh-ts in, the Oudjimuchin, a tribe of Mongols living south of the 
desert, near the Sliing-ngan mountains, S. of Hurunpir. 

•^^ pp Wu-chimg, the region now divided into the three departments of Sang chau, Su chau 
and Ha chm. It was called Wu Idun and San Wu. 

^E )^ 1^ Wu-hien kwoh, a country of serpent-charmers near the Wu shan, given to Fung- 
shuh, the body-physician of the emperor Yau. 

^ iM Wu-hwan, a country on the " Western borders," peopled by a Txmg-hu tribe, which 
aided in driving away the Hiung-nu during the Eastern Han period, but were themselves 
exterminated by the Liau. 

jffi /v "^ Wu-jin t au, the Bonin or Arzobispo Islands, supposed to be uninhabited, as the 
name signifies. 

-^ ^gjj Wu kiun, the region now divided into the three departments of Sangchau, Suchau 
and Huchau, in Kiangsu and Chekiang. See Wu chung. 

^ P^'j jSC Wu-lah-tih, the Urats, a tribe of Mongols hving in the valley of Kadamal, N. 
of the Yellow Elver, and E. of the Ortous. They are probably the Horiads of Marco 

^ mi ^^ n^ ^ Wu-lan-chah-pu naing, one of the six coips of Inner Mongolia, living in 
the south-west, towards Kansuh and Shensi, outside of the Great Wall, 

j^ ^ %% W^ ^k. Wu-li-ya-su t ai, Uliasutai, the city of the " Poplar Grove, " in the 
Khanate of Sannoin, lying N.W. of the Selenga river in a well -cultivated and pleasant 
valley. It is the residence of a high officer who superintends the UUanghai tribes, and the 


Mongolian tribes \i\mg in CIolxlo and the Avestern portion of Mongolia. 
j^ i>|C Wu-lin, a name applied to Hangchow, and to Chekiang province, from a range of 

hills near Hangchow. 
j^ @ ^M ^^ Wu-hi-moh-lsi, Unmatsi, a town in Songaria, on the N. of the T'ien shan, 
now included in Kansuh. It was the residence of the Tuh kiueh so" ereigiis of the 5th 
century, and is in Lat. 43^ 45' N. and Long. 89° E. Exiled criminals are sent here to till 
the soil, and the nomadic tribes have been successfully encoiu-aged to settle in this ungenial 
district. See Tih-hwa chau. 
j^ *& W^ ^^ /T Wu-lu-su-muh-tan, a town or post at the point of jmiction of the Human 

and Sagalien rivers. 
J^ /^- Wu man, the Karens, or black savages" of Kauting, or Caraian. Sec Ngai-lau-i, 

Kara means black. 
jM [_L] Wu-shan, or Onsh, the name of a defile in the Aktag mountains, not far from which 
is the stone tower with forty pillars called Chihd Situn, the reputed ruins of a caravan- 
serai built in Alexander's time. 
/{X [ I [ W^ Wu-shan-kiah, one of the most dangerous of the gorges on the Upper Yangtsz'. 
It is near a mountain of the same name, is 20 miles long, and the boundary between Hupeh 
and Sech'uen lies about halfway through it. The water of these cliffs or gorges, called 
yai-sJuvui, is said in the Pen l^sau to cause goitre and ague. See Kiu-ying. 
j^ YY "j^ Wu-sliih chmg, the gam'soned city of Ushi, or Ouchi, in Chinese Turkestan, in 
the valley of the headwaters of the Tarim river, in Lat. 4P 35' N. and Long. 77° 50' E 
A Chinese officer usually resided here to control the districts of Olisu, Bai and Sairim. 
By a series of forts he affected to control the Avild Kirghis, who have given much trouble 
to both the Chinese and the Russian generals. This district is separated from I'li and the 
' Kirghis by the Siueh sh:in, on the S. it is bounded by Yarkand and Khotcn districts, and 
E. by that of Aksu. 
^^ 2h Wu-si, an old name of Kiangsi pro\nnce. 
^^ ^^ :S. Wu-su-li, the ri\'er LTsuri in Kirin. 

i!^ -^ Wu-sun, a country on the " West€m borders, " mentioned as producing palms. It was 
to the king of this country that one of the later Han emperors was made to send one of his 
il^ J|/f ^^ AVu-sz'-tsang, a name of the Thibetans or Turfans. 
-fj. -^ Wu-t'au, the. Gotto Islands, off Nagasaki. 
-ft. ^C Wu-t'ien, or Goten, the Japanese name of the Getse, or Massageta?, or Indo-Scythians, 

on either side of the Himalayas. See Ta-yueh-chi. 
JJS^ ^5 Wu-tu, an old name of Kiai chau, in Kansuh province. 
j^ Bs J^rI Wu-yuh ho, a river in Khoten yielding jade. See Yuh-limg ho. 
JL ^'j *^ Wuh-lah-hai, one of the seven hi of the Mongolian period, incuding Tangut, or 

Kansuh. This was probably the kingdom of Egngaia of Marco Polo. 
^ ^ Wuh-kili, the name of the Moh-hoh previous to the Sui dynasty. They were divided 
into seven tribes, of which Nu-chin and Puh hai were names. 

^ ^ Wuh-sie, or Butsa, Bussorali in the Persian Gulf. Eemusal gives Pei-sz*-h' as a name 
of BussoraL 


^% ^ ^ Ya-keli-sah, Yacsa, the fort of Albazin at the junction of the river Yacsa with the 
SagaUen nla. It was built by the Russians, and destroyed for the second time, according 
to treaty in 1689. See Ngo-kwoh-niu-lu. 

^ ^j Ya-lah, a name of the MongoUan Urats, said to be W. of the Tah-tsu. 

^Hl ^ ^^ yfj Ya-lu-tsang-pu, the Yaritsangbo river, variously described in European maps 
as the Irawaddy or the Brahmaputra river. There is now little doubt that this name 
properly applies to the Brahmaputra, talcing its rise in Western Thibet. The Ira- 
waddy is the Lu-kiang of the Chinese.. The Ho-ti kiang and Mekong are also 
important rivers in Yunnan draining neighbouring countries. 

Eui jf>ffl Ks yji Ya-si-ya chau, the continent of Asia, which with Europe, Lybia (Afiica), 
America and Magellanica, constitutes a dividing of the world in the later Chinese geo- 
graphies, based upon the manuscripts of the Jesuits. Magellanica included Terra del 
Fuego, South Shetland, Palmer's Land, &c. 

^g T^ Ya-tsi, Acheen in the N. of Sumatra. See San-fuh-tsi. 

T^ jj»j Yang chau, one of Yii's provinces, including Kiangnan, Kiangsi, Chekiang, Fuhkien, 
and a small part of Kv/angtung. 

"nP ^W Yang ching, the " City of Rams, " a name given to the city of Canton from a legend 
concerning five shepherds, turned into as many rams, which were again changed into as 
many stone figures. The five rams in effigy were supposd to be the palladia of Canton, 
and their destruction by fire was superstitiously connected with the decline of the prosperity 
of the city. It is right to add that some ingeniously refer the name to an accidental 
resemblance between the characters for yang and tfiieh. 

^ W^ ^ Yang-kuh hien, see Tung-ngo hien. 

^-^ ^oj" yX Yang-ko kiang, a river in Kwangsi, giving its name to Hwai-yuen liien. 

-¥• S I^ Yang-peh-t'u, a name for Albinoes. See Peh-t'u-jin. They are called T'ien-lau- 
rh, in Peking. 

^ 7K Yang shwui, a name of the river Han in the higher part of its course. 

^ -y* ^X Yang-tsz'-kiang, the river Yangtsz'. See Ta IGang. This river was sometimes 
called Min kiavg in its upper course, from the fact that the Chinese took the Min as the 


largest of the four rivers whicli drain Secli uen, and amalgamate to form the Yangtsz'. 
In the J^ ^^ p2' Kwang-yn-ki, there is a story to the effect that a man of I-ching- 
hien having dh-ected a soldier to fetch some water from the Kiang, was being imposed 
upon as to the source of the water produced by the man, until his friend upset half of the 
water, and proved that the remaining half in the bottom of the vessel was alone genuine 
water of the Kiang. This he proved by splashing the water with a ladle, displaying 
the characteristic qualities of the water, and was confirmed by the confession of the 
man that he had added water of another sort. This marvellous fact is supposed to have 
been commemorated by giving the name Ij^ ^', Yang-tsz' to the Kiang, Ij^, Yang 
being the character for splashing." This is however an improbable derivation, for 
"jj^ -^, Yang-tsz' was a name of I-ching hien in the time of the Tang. /X ^f, Kiang- 
yang was a name of the adjoining district of /Jt §jS) Kiang-tu during the same period. 

^^ Yau, a tribe of Miau-tsz' in Li-po hien in Kweichau province. An excellent kind of 
cassia, produced in their district, is named after them. 

^^ ^[S Ye-lang. a large country to the S.W. of China, connected with the Laos tribes. 

^^ ^ yC JK Yeh-rh-kiang ching, Yerkiang, or Yarkand, a large city in Chinese Turkes- 
tan, on a branch of the river Taiim, in Lat. 38° 19' N., and Long. 77° 28' E. See Sha- 
ku kwoh. 

^^ jW Yen chau, one of Yii' s nine provinces, including a small part of Pehchlhli and of 
Shantung of the present day. 

ifi0 3v Yen-chi, See Yung-chang-lu and Oh-shi. 

J^ ^" Yen-k'i, an old name of Kharashar, said to yield a valuable ophthalmic medicine, called 
luh yen, ' green salt, " apparently a kind of malachite, but often adulterated with verditer 
and verdigi'is. 

^^ ^ Yen king, a name of Peking as the seat of a principality in the early Ming period, 
whose occupant, the fourth son of Hung-wu, seized the throne of his grandnephew and 
removed the capital from Nanking to Peking, then called Yen king. Yen-shan and Yen 
kwoh are still older names of what is now Sh-unt'ien fu, the metropolitan prefecture. See 
Yu-yen and Peh-p ing. Yen by itself stood for the province of Yu chau, of the Shang 
dynasty, answering nearly to Pehchihli. 

J^ (^ Yen kwoh, a country belonging to Sogdiana, and answering to the modem Yen^ 

1/1^ 1^ Yen-tah, or Yah-tah, a country of the Massagctse, in the W. which sent an embassy 
to China in the reign of Ming Ti of the Western Tsin, in conjunction with the countries 
T u-tah and Hwan-tang-chang. 

fj^ ^1^ Yen-t ai, the actual treaty-port in the bay of Chefoo, situated on the northern side of 
the Shantung promontory, in Lat. 37° 35' 56" N., and Long. 121° 22' 23" E. This 
port, miscalled Chefoo, is resorted to as a sanitarium by foreign residents in China, and has 
the advantage of certain hot springs, called Tung-t ang, at a distance of some fifty miles. 

^S )^ Yen-tseh, a name of Lake Lop nor. Marco Polo speaks of the city of Lop, which 
stood in the line of the caravans which here crossed the Great Desert, on their way 


to China. See Lo-pu-nau-rh. 
^ ^ivh Yen-t'si, a salt lake in Hotung, 160 li in circumference. 

•^^ ^M M-J Yen-l^z' shan, the name of an imaginary mountain in the W. in wHcli the sun 
was supposed to rest at night. 

^ fW Yih chau, an old name of Ching-tu fu, in Sech uen, under Ts m. 

— ' ^ ^ ^ ^^ Yih-t3z'-loh-nieh-tien, the " Temple of the IsraeUtes " at K aifung fu. 
The large stone graven with these titular characters has been appropriated by the Mahom- 
medans of that city for their mosque, together with the larger part of the congregation. 
See K ai-fung fu. 

Jg^ Yin, the nams of the latter part of the Shang dynasty, commencing with P wan-kang, 
who shifted the capital from -ff^, Hing, m the S.W. of Pehchihli to ^ Poh in Honan, 
the old capital of Kuh Kau-sin, the predecessor of Tang Ti-yau. This was the ori- 
ginal capital of the Shang sovereigns. 

pjj 1^ i^ Yin-tu-king, the country of India. See T W-chuh kwoh, and T'ien-tuh. 

pP ^ y^ Yin-tu yang, the Indian Ocean, called in some works the Nan-hai, or Siau-si-yang. 

5^ O iy ^ ■^ Yiag-kih-sha-rh ching, Yingeshar or Yengihassar, a small ganrisoned 
town between the districts of Yarkand and Kashgar, placed W. of Yarkand. See I-nai 

j^ TC Ying-t ien, a name of Nanking under the Muig. 

^^ "^ Ying-tez', or Yun-tsz', the actual port and settlement mis-called Newchwang, situated 
on the river, at about five miles from its mouth. 

-^ ^I'l Yoh-chau, or Yoh-chau fu, a town in Himan, at the mouth of the T'nng-ting lake. 
It is a military and customs station and is distant from Hankow 130 miles, and from 
Peking 4,250 //. It was the ancient seat of the San miau. 

^p _^ Yu-chang, an official designation of Kiangsi province. This name, originally given to 
Nan-chang fu, also called Hung-tu was extended to the whole province, as is often the 
case with the name of the premier /« city. This name seems to be sometimes referred to 
the Kiukiang fu of the present day. 

^^ jj'j Yu chau, one of Yii's nine provinces, including six departments in Honan of the 
present day, two districts in Peh-chih-li, four districts in Shantung, four districts and one 
sub-department in Nganhwm", and some eight districts or sub-departments in Hupeh. As 
the greater part of the region lay in Honan, this latter province is sometimes called by this 

|44{ ^^j'j Yu chau, one of the provinces of Yu-ti-shun, identical with one of a similar name in 
the Shang dynasty ; with the province of Yen (See Yen-king), and the present Pehchihli. 

P^ ^^ Yu-i, or y^ W^ ^^, Tung-yii-i, the country of the rising sim referred by some to 
Corea, and by others to Tang-chau on the Shantung promontory. Tliis depends on the 
limits assigned to the province of T'sing-chau of Yii's time. The sea has probably en- 
croached here in some way. See Ts ing chau. 

'W ^1 Yu-ning, an old name of Wu-ning fu in Kiangsi province. 

^» i^ ?^ J Yu-p'i-tah-tsz', the tiibe of " Fish-skin Tartars, " hunting upon the banks of 



the Usuri river, in the maritime province of Kiria. These with the Kiclmg Tahts£ and the 
Ghuilahs, are practically independent of the Chinese government. 

^ ^ Yu-tien kwoh, the country of Khoten, the Casia of Ptolemy, famous for its silks 
and jadestone. See Ho-tien. 

5^ "^ Yu-tseh, a name of the P'u-chang hai See Lo-pu-nau-rh. 

iM* v^ Yu-yang, an old name of P 'ing-kuh hien (CMhU). 

{ ^ ^H^ Yu-yen, a name of Peking during the Chau djmasty, still used in documents. 

•^ Yueh, the old name of the rej^'on of Kwangtung, also called Yueh-tang to distinguish it fiom 
Yueh-si, or Kwangsi. ^ ■^, Peh yueh is the old name of a portion of this re^on. 

j^ Yueh, an ancient state in the present Chekiang province. See Nan-yueh and Wu. 

^5 ^ Yueh-chang, the Laos tribes between Yunnan and Annam and Siam. 

-^ g£ Yueh-fei, the name by which the Ch ang-mau, or rebel followers of the ifcd-ping vxmg^ 
from Kwangsi and Kwangtung, are spoken of in official documents. 

j^ ^^ Yueh-nan, or Annam, Cochin China, called by the Cochin Chinese Vietnam. Kwang- 
tung or Canton province was formerly called Nan-yueh, to distinguish it from the Yv£h 
kwoh of Chekiang. Tung-yueh is an old name of SIiau-Mng fu in Chekiang, famous for 
its silk. 

^g >|y|^ g^ Yueh-sih-chau, a name of one of the six chiefs of the tribes of the province of 
Yunnan, called Caraian by Marco Polo. This pro^^nce was then inhabited by those tribes, 
probably to be identified with the Karens, who had been conquered by the Mongols. See 

^ y^ Yueh-ti, the Getje or Indo-Scythians, conquerors of Scinde and the Punjaub, about the 
early part of the Chiistian era. See Ta-yueh-chi, and Mih-kieh kwoh. 

y[^ Yuen, the Mmgoh'an race and dynasty. See Mung-ku. 

^ ^^ 1^ Yuen-ku ching, Yengu, a town near Kharashar formerly the capital of the district. 

yi^ -^ Yuen-t n, an ancient kingdom in Liautung, afterwards made into a principahty by 
Wa Ti of the Han dynasty. 

^j) Yuh, the name of an ancient region in the S.E. of Kansuh and adjoining part of Shensi 
of the present time. There was a Yuh-chih hien in Shantung. 

^1^ $j5 Yuh-chih, an ancient name of Ngau-hwa hien in Kansuh. 

3& rljE f^ Yuh-lung ho, the Yuiimg Kash, or Ulgunkash, a river near Ilchi in Chinese Tur- 
kestan, whose swoUen streams bring down nephrite or jade, which is collected from the bed 
or strand. This is the Khoten river of some writers. See Keh-lah-keh-sha. 

S. I I ^ Yuh-mon-kwan, a barrier or pass in the W. in Chinese Turkestan. 

*p?* ^j'j Yun chau, a name given to Liautung by Shim, who separated it from Yii's province 
of Ts ing chau. 

^^ ^\\ Yun chung, a region in the ancient K*i-chau province, an3wermg to the present depart- 
ment of Ta-t ung-fa in Shansi, still bearing this aUas. It was the early capital of the Wei 

^ ^^ Yun-han, or the Milky Way. See T'ien ho. 

5^ ^fij Yun-ho, or Yun-liang ho, the '^ Grain-transporting river," the Grand Canal. 


^S lS i^ Yun-liang ho, or Yun ho, the Grand Canal. See Chah ho. 

'^ ~jp Yun-tsz', see Ying-tsz. This name scarcely means " the camp, " as it is translated in 

some foreign works, for the pronunciation is quite distinct. The name is probably derived 

from the name of the old province of Yun chau, separated by Shim from Ts ing chau when 

he extended Yii's pet number of nine provinces to twelve in all. 
7^ ^ ^a Yung-chang lu, one of the Mongolian divisions of China, answering to the tau of 

the T ang period. This is now the head of a district in Kansuh, in Lat. 38° 20' N. and 

Long. 101° E. It was the city of Ergmul of Marco Polo. This district was formerly 

called Yen-cld. 
g^ yW Yung chau, the largest of Yii's provinces, to the N. of Liang chau, and separated 

from K i chau by the Si Jio, which see. 
■^ 5W Yung ching, the " Banian city, " a name of Fuhchau. 
/J< -^ 5W Yxmg-ning ching, the " City of eternal tranquillity," a name given to Ushi by 

K ien-lung, after the conquest of Turkestan. 






Abagais. See A-pa-kai, 

Abaganar. See A-pa-ha-nah-rh. 

Aborigines. See Miau-tsz'. Nui-i. Nung-jin. 

San-miau. Siau-kin-ch'uen. Tan. Tau-kia. 

Yau. Pei-lau. 
Achaia. See Wu-c'hi-k\voli. 
Acheen. See Ya-tsi. 
Adam. See A-tan. 
Adam's peak. See Sih-lan-shan. 
Afghanistan. See Kj-pin-kwoh. 
Africa. See Li-wei-ya. 
Aimaks, See Chob-lo-sz'-pu. 
Ainos. See Hia-i. 
Aksai-chin. See Lo-to-keh ching. 
Aksn. See A-keh-su ching. Wan-suh. 
Albasins. See Ngo-kwoh-niu-luh. Ya-keh-sah. 
Albinoes. See Peh-min-kwoh. Yang-peh-t'a. 
Alotan river. See A-keh-tan-ho. 
Alps. See Siau-kwan-lun, 
Altai mountains. See Kin-shan. 
Altchucu. See A-leh-keh-tsu ching, 
Amarapura. See P'u-kan. 
Amazons. See Nu-tsz'-kwoh. 
Amban. See Ko-pu-to-ching. 
Amboyna. See Ngan-wan. 
America. See Hwa-k'i-kwoh. Mei-kwoh. 
Amoy. See Hia-men. Hai-t'au. Lu-kiang. 
Amur river. See Heh-liing-kiang. 
Annam. See Cochinchina. 
Antoninus. See An-tan. 
Arabia. See Ta-shih-kwoh. T'ien-fang kwoh. 

Aria. See Hai-ya-kwoh. 
Arzobispo islands. See Wu-jin-t'au. 
Asia. See Ya-si-ya-chau. 
Atlantic ocean. See Ta-si-yang-hai. 
Austria. See Tsz'-ying. Tuh-yih. 
Aykhom. See Ngai-hwan-ching. 
Azure sea. See T'sing-hai. 


Bactria. See Ta-hia. 

Badakshan. See Pa-teh-keh-shan. 

Bai. See Pai-ching. 

Balkh. See Ta-hia. 

Banca. See San-lih. 

Banchin-erdeni. See Chah-shih-lun-pu-ching. 

Banjermassing. See Ma-shin. 

Bantam. See Tan-tan-kwoh. "Wan-tan. Tu-po- 

Barbarians. See Hien-yun. I'. Jung-tih. Man. 

Moh-yau. Shan-jung. Si-hu. Si-kiang. 

Sien-li. Su-jung. Tih. Wai-fan. Wai-i. 

Hung-i. Peh-Ian. 
Barin. See Pa-lio. 
Barkul. See Chin-si. Pa-rh-ku-rh. 
Bashee islands. See Hung-t'u-su. 
Batavia. See Kia-liu-pa. Koh-lah-pa. 
Bathang. See Pa-t'ang. 
Bayenkara. See Pa-yen-k'eh-lah. 
Behar. See Mo-kieh-t'i-kwoh. 
Belur tagh. See T'sung-ling. 
Benares. See Po-Io-nai. 
Bencoulen. See Wan-ku-lu. Wang-kiu-li. 
Bengal. See P'ang-koh-lah. 
Bich balish. See Peh-ting. 
Bima. See Li-ma. 
Bisch balik. See Ho-chau. 
Black-tented Thibetans. See Si-fan. 
Black Tartars. See Hiau-lo-ko-muh-li. 
Bokhara. See A-pa-ko-rh. Fan-tu-ching. 
Bombay. See Tan kwoh. 
Bonin islands. See Wu-jin-t'au. 
Bonzes. See Fan-sang. 
Borneo. See Fuh-ni. Po-lo-chau. P'o-ni. Puh-ni. 

Wan-lai. Liu-kiu kwoh. P'o-luh kwoh. 
Botel Tobago. See Hung-t'u-su. 
Bourouts. See Pu-lu-teh. 
Brahma. See Fan. 
Brahmaputra river. See Ta-kin-sha-kiang. Ya- 


Brahmins. See Fan. Po-lo-men. 
British legation. See Liang-kung-fu. 
Budala. See Pu-tah-la. 
Buddha. See A-mi-to-fuh. F'an-t'u. Ju-lai-fuh. 

Mi-leh-fuh. Nan-wii a-mi-to-fuh. Shih-kia- 

Buddhism. See Fuh-kiau. Shih-kiau. 
Buddhist priests. See Fan-sang. Fan-t'u. Sang- 

men. Sha-men. 
Burmah. See A-wa. Mien-tien. Chil-po-ti. 
Burmans. See Po-lo-men. 
Bussorah, See Wu-sie. 
Byzantium. See Fuh-lin-kwoh. 


Cabul. See Ngan-shih-kwoh. Pu-lu-sha-pu-lo. 

Cacian fu. See Ho-chung-fu. 
Calatia. See Chung-hing-fu Ning-hia, 
Calicut. See Ku-li. Si-yang-ku-li. 
California. See Kin-shan. 
Cambodia. See Chin-lah. Fu-nan. Nan-man- 

kwoh. Tung-p'u-chai. 
Camoens's grotto. See Peh-koh-c'hau. 
Cancun. See Han-chung. Hing-yuen-lu. 
Candahar. See Kia-t'u-lo. 
Canfu. See Cha-pu. Kan-p'u. 
Cangigu. See Pap-peh-sih-fuh kwoh. 
Canton city. See Kwang-chau-fu. Yang-ching. 
Canton province. See Ling.nan. Nan-yueh. 

Tung-yueh. Yueh. 
Capital of Annam. See Kiau-chau-fu. 
Capital of Burmah. See A-wa. P'ang-hiang. 

P'u-kan. Ta-kang kwoh. 
Capitals of China, See Hien-yang. Chang-ngan. 

Loh-yang. Ching-tu-lu. Ngoh-chu. Kien- 

yeh. Si-ngan-fn. Puh-chau. Pien-chau. 

Peh-king. Yen-king. Nan-king. 
Capital of Corea. See King-ki-tau. 
Caraian. See Kau-ting. Luh-chau. Yueh-sih- 

Caramoran. See Hwang-ho. 
G^rimon islands. See Kili-li-men. 
Casa Branca. See T'sien-shan-ohai. 
Cashmere. See Kia-shih-mi-lo. 
Caspian sea. See Lui-hai. Si-hai. 
Cathay. See K'i-tan, 
Celebes islands. See Si-li-chih. 
Celestials. Mung-ku-jin. 
Celestial mountains. See T-ien-slian. 

Central India. See Chung-t'ien-chuh. 

Cerara. See Si-lan. 

Ceylon. See Sih-lan-shan-kwoh. Sz'-tsz'-kwoh. 

Chamdo. See Tsiando. 

C'hang-mau. See T'ai-pings. 

Chapu. See Cha-pu. 

Chefoo. See Chi-fau. Tang-chau-fu. Yen-t'ai. 

Chersonesus. See Wan-lai. 

Chihal Situn. See Wu-shan. 

Chinchew. See T-'siuen-chau fu. 

China. See Chi-na. Chin-tan. C'hih-ni. Chu- 

hia. Chung-kvvoh. Chung-hwa. Han-t'u. 

Hwa-hia. Shih-pah-sang. Ta-t'sing-kwoh. 

T'ang-shan. Tung-t'u. T'ien-chau. 
China sea. See Tung-hai. 
Chinese emigrants. See Tang-jin. 
Chiangmai. See Chau-mei. 
Chonka. See Kien-kwoh. 
Choros tribes. See Choh-lo-sz'-pu. 
Choshots. See Choh-soh-t'u-ming. 
Chusan. See Chau-shan. 
Ciandu. See Shang-tu. 
Clemeinfu. See K'ai-p'ing. 
Cochin. See Kvvei-tsing. 
Cobdo. See Ko-pu-to-ching. 
Cochinchina. See Chiau-chi. Hwang-chi-kwoh. 

Jeh-nan. Kiu-chin. Nan-chiau-chi-ti. Ngan- 

nan-kwoh. Si-king. 
Cogacin. See Ho-keh-tsj. 
Cophene. See Ki-pin-kwoh. 
Coromandel coast. See A-c'liih-li-kwoh. Kau- 

C;)rea. See Chau-sien. Kau-li-kwoh. 
Cossacks. See Ha-sah-keh. 
Coulan. See Kii-lan. 
Cush. See Hindoo Kush. 
Cretins. See Kiu-ying. Wu-shan-kiah, 
Cyamba. See Tsiampa. 

I)aha3. See Ta-hia. 

Dainam. See T'ai-nan. Ta-yueh. 

Dalai Lama. See Tah-lai-lah-ma. Chah-shih- 

D lourian mountains. See Ken-teh-shan. 
Deccan, See Ta-king. 
Denmark. See Hwang-k'i-kwoh. 
Desert of Gobi. See Han-hai. Ko-pih. Liu- 

sha. Slia-moh. 
Desima, See Chuh-t'au. 
Dharma. See Ta-fah-kwoh. 


Djassi. See Chah-shih-ching. 

Dolondo. Lah-ma-miau. 

Dsilonng. See Tsi-lung-ching. 

Dsiinggar. See Tsung-keli-ching. 

Durbeths, See Tu-rh-peh-teh. 

Dutch, See Ho-lan-kwoh. Hung-man. Chuh- 

Dyaks. See Li-mau-jau, 


East India Company. See Kung-sz'. 

Egrigaia. See Ning-liia. Wuh-lah-liai. 

Egypt. See Mi-sz'-rli. 

Eight pasturages. See Pah-yuen. 

Eleuths. See A-Ui-shan ngeh-lu-teh-k'i. Ngeh- 

hi-teh. Ha-mih. 
Emperor of China. See T'ien-tsz'. T'ien-chau. 
England. See Ta-ying-kwoh. 
Erguiul. See Yung-cbang-hi. 
Europe. See Ngau-lo-pa. Si-yang. Ta-si-yang. 

Fahan, See Ku-san-kwoh. 
Fan-ching. See Siang-ho. 
Fan tribes. See Chang-ye. Chu-fan. Mung-fan. 

Si-fan. Wai-fan. 
Fatshan. See Fuh-shan. 
Feiyaks. See Fei-ya-keh. 
Ferganah. See Ta-yuen-kwoh. 
Flrando. See Ping-bu-t'au. 
Fischer's island. See T'ang-hu. 
Fish-skin Tartars. See Yu-p'i-tah-tsz'. 
Fohi. See P'au-hi. 
Foreign-office. See Li-fan-yuen. T'sung-li-ya- 

Formosa. See P'i-sbie-ye. T'ai-wan. 
Fort Vernoe. See Kashgar. 
France. See Ta-fah-kwoli. Fuh-lang-si. 
Franks. See Fuli-lang-ki. 
P'rencb. See Fiib-lang-ki. Fii-lang-si. 
Fiicbow. See Fub-chau. Sau-shan. Yung-ching. 
Fukien. See Kien-kwoh. Min. 
Fusiyama. See Fu-sz'-shan. 
Fyzabad. See Pa-tah-keh-shan. 


Ganga river. See Kang-bob. 
Ganges. See Hang-bo. King-kia. 
Gautama Buddha. See Shib-kia-mau-ni. 
Genghis Khan. See Ching-kib-sz'-bau. 

Getae. See Ta-yueh-cbi. Wu-t'ien. Yueb-ti. 

Gbieding. See Kieb-ting ching. 

Ghioro. See Kob-lo. 

Ghoorkas. See Kob-rh-k'eh. 

Girin. See Kirin. 

Goa. See Siau-si-yang. 

Gobi desert. See Han-bai. Ko-pib. Sbr-moh. 

Gotto islands. See Wu-t'au. 

Grand Canal. See Chah-bo. Yun-bang-'io. 

Great Britain. See Ta-ying-kwob. 

Great Wall. See Shan-hai-kwan. Si-bo-obau. 

Tsz'-seh. Wan-li-chang-cbing. 
Greeks. See Hi-li-ni. Wu-c'hi-kwoh. 
Guge. Soe Ku-keb. 
Guldscha. See Hvvui-yuen-ching. 
Gunga. See Hang-ho. Kang-bob. 
Gutzlaff island. See Ma-tsih. 

Ilai-raen. See Tsung-ming-bien. 

Hainan. See Hai-k'au. Kiung-cliau. Pei-lau. 

Hakkas. See Keb-kia. Pun-ti. 

Hakodadi. See Sbiang-kwan. 

Hakusai. See Peb-tsi. 

Hatail. See Ha-mih. I-wu-lu. 

Hangchow. See King-sz'. Lin-ngan. Wr-'in. 

Hankow. See Han-k'au. Siang-ho. 
Hankow settlement. See Shih-pah-sang. 
Hanlemuh. See Sai-li-muh-ching. 
Hanyang. See Ngob-cbu. T'sing-cb'uen. Tiin- 

yang. Han-tsin, and Han-yang-kwan. 
Hanyang hill. See Ta-pieb-shan. 
Haroyu. See Herat. 
Hassacks. See Ha-sab-keh. 
Hebrew. See Hi-peh-lai. 
Herat. See Hai-ya-kwoh. 
Himalayas. See Siueh-shan. 
Himatala. See Siueh-shan-bia. 
Hindoo Kush. See Hien-tu. 
Hindostan. See Han-tu-sz'-tan. \Van-tu-sz'-tan. 
H'lari, See La-li-ching. 
H'lassa. See La-sah. Pu-tah-la. 
Hffiifan hotun. See Hvvui-fah. 
Hoklo. See Fub-lau. 
Holland. See Ho-lan-kwoh. Hung-mau. 
Honari. See Chung-yuen. Yu-chau. 
Hongque. See Hung-k'au. 
Hongkong. See Hiang-kiang. K'wan-tai-hi. 
Horiads. See Urats. 
Hormaz. See Ku-li-kwob and Hwuh-lu-mu-sz'. 


Hoshoits. See Ho-shih-teh-pu. 

Hot springs. See K'eh-lah-k'eh-sha. Yen-t'ai. 

Hotnn tala. See Ngoh-tun-ta-la. Sing-suh-hai. 
Hue. See Kiau-chau-fu. 
Hunan. See Hu-kwang. San-siang. Siang- 

Hung-tu. See Yu-chang. 
Hupeh. See T»ung-ting-hu. San-t'su. 
Hurlia river. See Ning-ku-tali-ohing. San-sing- 

Hurun-pir. See Hu-lun-pei-rb-ching. 
Hwan-wang. See Lin-yih. 

I-ho-hien. See Pa-rh-ku-rh. 

Ilchi. See Ho-tien-ching. 

I'll. See Hwui-yuen-ching. 

India. See Chau-sien-t'ien-tuh. Chung-t'ien- 

chuh. Kiuen-tuh. Shin-tuh. Si-t'ien. T'ien- 

chuh-kwoh. T'ien-tuh. Yin-tu-king. 
Indian Ocean. See Nan-hai. Yin-tu-yang. 
Indo-scythians. See Ta-yueh-chi. Wu-t'ien. 

Indus. See Kang-hoa. Ma-peh-moh-tah-lai. 

Inner Mongolia. See Mung-ku. 
Irawaddy river. See Lu-kiang. Nu-kiang. Ya- 

Islam. See Sih-t'i. 
Italy. See I'-ta-li-ya. 

Jambi. See Ku-kiang. 

Japan. Sea Hwang-kwoh. Jeh-pun. Jeh-pun- 
kwoh. Shin-kwoh. Tung-yang. Wel-kwoh. 

Japanese. See Wei-nu. Wei-tsz'. 

Japan sea. See Siau-tung-yang. 

Jau-jen. See Ju-ju. 

Java. See Chau-wa. Kia-liu-pa. Koh-lah-pa. 

Javanese. See Chau-ya. 

Jaya. See Cha-ya. 

Jehol. See Jeh-ho. Pi-shu-shan-chwang. 

Jen^fei. See Ju-ju. 

Jesus. See Rh-sa. 

Jews. See Kiu-kiau. Lan-mau-hwui-tsz'. Mwan- 
lah. Tau-kin-kiau. T'ien-chuh-kiau. T'ien- 
kiau. T'sing-chin-kiau. Yih-tsz'-loh-nieh-tien. 

Jiling, or Siling. See Si-ning. 

Johore. See Jau-fuh. 

Jounghia. See Jung-hiah-ching. 

Judaea. See Ju-teh-ya. Fuh-lin-kwoh. 
Junk-seylon. See Sih-lan. 
Jupiter. See Sheh-t'i. 
Juts. See Ta-yueh-cbi. 

Kalantan. See Kia-lan-tan. 

Kalgan. See Chang-kia-k'au. Mai-mai-chin. 

Kalkas. See K'eh-rh-k'eh. 

Kambalu. See Peh-king. 

Kanagawa. See Shiu-nai-ch'uen. 

Kansuh. See Wan-t'siuen. Peb-ti-kinn. 

Kara Kitai. See Hiau-lo-ko-mub-li. K'i-tan. 

Karakorum. See Ho-lin. Ho-ning. 

Earakash. See K'eh-lah-k'eh-sha. 

Karens. See Kau-ting. Lub-chau. Ngai-lau-i. 

Kartsin. See K'eb-lah-tsin. 
Ka.shgar. See K'eb-shib-kieh-rh-ching. Su-leh- 

Kekichten. See Keh-si-keh-tang. 
Kelung. See Ki-lung. Sbie-liau. 
Kentei mountains. See Kec-teh-shan. 
Kerman. See Tu-po-lo-men. 
Kewkiang. See Kiu-kiang. 
Kham. See Kang. Ghab-muh-to-chiug. 
Khamba. See Kang. Keb-muh. 
Khaotchit. See Kau-tsi-teb. 
Kbarachin. See K'eb-lah-tsin. 
Kharashar. See K'eh-lah-sha-rh-ching. Yen-k'i. 
Khoits. See Hwui-teb-pu. 
Khojend. See Hoh-su. 
Khorlos. See Kob-lo-rh-sz'. 
Khoten. See Ho-tien-ching. Yu-tien-kwoh. 
Khoten river. See Wu-yuh-ho. Ho-tien-ching. 

Kboubdam. See Chang-ngan. 
Kiacbta. See Mai-mai-chin. 
Kibi. See Kib-pi. 
Ki-hu-wan. See Kublai Khan. 
K'ib-lau. See Lau-tsz'. 
Kin Tartars. See Nu-chih. Ta-kin. 
Kr'afto. See Peb-bia-i. 
Kinsai. See King-sz'. 
Kioto. See Kiug-tu. 

Kirgbis. See Ha-sah-keh. Wu-shih-ching. 
Kirin. See Kih-lin. 

Kokand. See Hob-ban. Ta-yuen-kwoh. 
Kokonor. See Ku-ko-noh-rh. T'sing-hai. 
Kolo tribes. See Si-fan. 
Ko-lo-fu-sha. See Ta-ni. 

Koran. See Ku-leh. 

Korchins. See A-lu-ko-rh-tsin. 

Kortchins. See Ko-rh-tsin. 

Koiibo. See Hung-fah. 

Koulkun mountains. See Kwan-lun. Nan shan, 

Koutch6. See Ku-ch6-ching. Kwei-tsz'-kwoh. 
Kowloong. See Kiu-lung. 
Koxinga. See Ching-chi-lung. Kwoh-sing-ye. 

Ku-yeh-t'au. See Peh-hia-i. 
Kublai Khan. See Hwuh-pieh-lieh. 
Kukai Mongol. See Mung-ku-jin. 
Kuku kotu. See Kwei-shu-ching. 
Kukuktu. See Ku-lun. 
Kxildja. See Guldscha. 
Kung. See Prince Kung. 
Kurkara usu. See Ku-rh-k'eh-lah wu-su-ching. 
Kurun. See Ku-lun. 
Kwan-yin. See Mi-leh-fuh. Nan-hai. Kwan- 


Ladak. See La-tah-keh. 

Ladrone islands. See Lau-wan-shan. 

Lake Baikal. See Peh-hai. 

Lake Barkul. See Hiung-nu-chung-hai, P'u- 

Lampong. See Lan-fang. 
Langya-nor. See Ma-peh-moh-tah-la. 
Lanka. See Ceylon. 
Larin. See La-lin-ching. 
Latin. See Li-han. 
Leh. See La-tah-keh. 
Leulan. See Shen-shen. 
Lewchew islands. See Chung-^han. Liu-kiU'kwohi 

Na-pa. Shau-ni. 
Liampo. See Ning-po-fu. 
Libya. See Li-wei-ya. 
Linga. See Lang-ya. 
Lintin island. See Ling-ting. 
Lithang. See Li-t'ang. 
Lohyang. See I'-kien. 
Lolo. See Sien-lo. Luh-lai. 
Lop-nor. See Lo-pu-nau-rh. P'u-chabg-hai. 

Yen-tseh. Yu-tseh. 
Lucon. See Lu-sung. 

Lu-men, or Lu-t'au. See Hia-men and Hia-t'au. 
Lunar race. See Ta-yueh-chi* 


M'abar. See Ma-pah-rh. 

Macao. See Ngau-men. 

Macao barrier. See Kwan-chah. 

Macao roads. See Sha-lih. 

Macassar. See Mang-kia-sah. 

Madjicosima islands. See Kung-ku-tau. 

Madura. See Mo-tu-lo. 

Magadha. See Fan. Mo-kia-to-kwoh. Mo-kieh- 
t'i-kwoh. P'o-so-kwoh. 

Magellanica. See Ya-si-ya-chau. 

Mahommed. See Moh-han-meh-teh. 

Mahommedans. See Hwui-hwui. Kiau-men. 
Moh-min. Sih-ti. Si-mi-kwoh-wang. Tu- 

Mahommedan tribes. See Fu-lu-rh. Hvvui-pu. 
Mai trey a. See Mi-leh-fuh. 

Malabar. See Ku-li-kwoh. 

Malacca. See Ma-luh-kiah. Man4uh-kia. 

Malaysia. See Kia-lan-tan. Ta-ni. Sien-lo. Jau- 

Manchuria. See Mwan-chau. 
Manchus. See Koh-lo. Mwan-jin. Nu-chih. 

T'sing. Moh-hoh. "Wuh-kih. 
Manicheans. See Moh-ni. 

Manilla. See Kwei-tau. Lu-sung. Siau-lu-sung. 
Manji. See Man. Man-tsz'. 
Mao mingan. See Mau-min-ngan. 
Marco Polo, See Chii-mih-fuh-sz'. Poh-lo. 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. See An-tan. 
Mar-yul. See La-tah-keh. 
Massagetse. See Mih-kieh-kwoh. Ta-yueh-chi. 

Wu-t'ien. Yen-tab. Yueh-ti. 
Masulipatam. See Ku-li-pan-tsuh. 
Matteo Ricci. See Li-ma-tuh. 
Mecca. See Meh-keh-kwoh. Moh-kia. 
Medina. See Meh-teh-na. 
Mediterranean sea. See Si-hai. Ta-hai. Ti- 

Meiacosima. See Madjicosima. Kung-ku-t'au. 
Meikong river. See Kiu-lung-kiang. Nan- 

Merguen. See Meh-rh-kan-ching. 
Miaco. See King-tu. 
Middle Kingdom. See Chung-chau. Chung- 

Mikado. See T'ien-tsz'. Kung-fang. 
Milky way. See T'ien-ho. Yun-han. 
Mindoro. See T'au-ho. 
Moh-hu. See Moh-min. 
Moluccas. See Mi-luh-hoh. Mei-loh-ku. Sl-lan. 


Mongolia. See Mung-ku. 

Mongols. See A-pa-ha-nah-rh. Chah-lai-teh. 

Chah-lu-teh. Chah-wu-tah ming. Chi-li-muli 

ming. Choh-soh-t'u ming. I-keh-chau ming. 

K'eh-lah-tsin. Koh-rh-lo-sz'. Mung-ku-jin. 

Nai-man. Ngau-han. Sih-lin-koh-lih ming. 

Moors. See Peh-t'u-jin. 
Moses. See Mo-sa. 
Moukden. See Shing-king-ptin-ching. Fung- 

Moulmein. See Tang-yueh-chau. 
Mullah. See Mwan-lah. 


Nagasaki. See Chang-k'i. 

Nanking. See Kiang-nan. Kiang-ning. Kien- 

yeh. Kin-ling. Moh-ling. Nan-ki. 
Nari. See A-li-ching. Ku-keh. 
Nepaul. See Ni-p'o-lo. 
Nestorians. See Ju-li-ya. King-kiau. T'ien- 

Nestorian tablet. See Si-ngan-fu. 
Newchwang. See Niu-chwang. Ying-tsz'. 
Nielam. See Nieh-la-pun-ching. 
Ningpo. See Ning-po-fu. Sz'-ming. Ming-chau 

Ningunta. See Ning-ku-tah-ching. 
Nipchu. See Ni-pu-tsu. 
Nippon. See Jeh-pun. 
North Laos. See Chau-mei. Pah-peh-sih-fuh- 

Norway. See Shwui-kwoh. 

Oden. See Ngoh-tang. 

Oksu. See A-keh-su-ching. Wan-suh. 

Onion mountians. See T'sung-ling. 

Onrust. See U-ching. 

Oonam. See Hu-nan, under T'ung-ting-hu. 

Oopack. See Hu-peh, under T'ung-ting-hu. 

Oranbaligh. See Ho-ning. 

Orats. See Wu-lah-tih. 

Orders of Knighthood. See Pa-t'u-lu. Tieh 

Orissa. See Wu-c'ha-kwoh. 
Ormus. See Ku-li kwoh. 
Ortous. See Ngoh-rh-to-sz'. 
Osaka. See Ta-pan. 
Ouchi. See Wu-shih-ching. 
Oudjumuchins. See Wu-chujuoh-t'sin. 

Ouigour. See Uigur. 

Ouniots. See Ung-niu-teh. 

Ouroumtsl. See Urumtsi. 

Oush. See Wu-shan. 

Oushi. See Ouchi. 

Outer Mongolia. See Mung-ku. 

Pacific ocean. See Shin-hai. Ta-ming-hai. Ta- 
hai. T'ai-p'ing-yang. Tung-yang. Wan- 
shwui-chau-tung-ta-hai. Wei-lu. 
Padang. See Pa-tung. 
Paghan. See P'ang-hiang. 
Pakeu. See P'ing-t'siuen-chau. 
Palaces. See A-ching. Pi-shu-shan-chwang. 

Siuen-hwa-fu. Tsz'-kin-ching. 
Palembang. See Ku-kiang. 
Palestine. See Fuh-lin-kwoh. Ju-teh-ya. 
Pali language. See Fan. Mo-kieh-t'i-kwoh. 
Palisade. See Muh-t'u-ching. 
Palm island. See Shie-liau. 
Papua. See Pau-pau. 
Paracel reefs. See T'sih-chau. 
Parsees. See Ho-shin-kiau. Peh-t'u-jin. Po-sz'- 

king-kiau. Shih-ho-clii-kwoh. 
Parthians. See Ngan-sih. 
Passir. See Pa-shih. 
Patan, or Pattan. See Pa-tan. 
Patani. See Ta-ni. 

Pechele. See Peh-chih-li. 

Pegassim. See P'ang-hiang. 

Pegu. See Peh-ngo. P'i-kien. 

Peh-yueh. See Yueh. 

Peking. See Peh-king. King-sz'. Shun-t'ien-fu. 
Ta-tu. Yen-king. Yu-yen. 

Penal settlements. See Heh-lung-kiang-ching. 
Wu-lu-moh-tsi. Hi-chun-ching. 

Penang. See Pin-lang. Sin-fau. 

Persia. See Po-sz'-kwoh. 

Persians. See Hwui-hwui. Hung-mau-hwui- 
tsz'. Po-sz'-kwoh. Ta-shih. 

Pescadore islands. See P'ang-hu. 

Peshawur. See Pu-lu-sha-pu-lo. 

Petun6 ula. See Peh-tu-nah-ching. 

Philippine islands. See Manilla. 

Philistia. See Fuh-lin kwoh. 

Pidjan. See Pih-chen. Shen-shen. 

Podzung. See Poh-tsung-ching. 

Pontiana. See P'o-ni. 

Poonah. See Po-na. 

Portugal. See Poh-rh-tu-koh-rh-ya-kwoh. Si- 


yang kwoh. Ta-si-yang. 
Portuguese. See Fuh-lang-ki. Sih-tsz'-nien. 
Postmaster General. See Kitig-t'ang. 
Potteries. See King-teh-chin. 
Pou-ho-rh. See A-pa-ko-rh. 
Poutai ula. See Ta-sang-wu-la-ching. 
Poyang lake. See P'ang-li. Poh-yang-hu. 
Praya grande. See Nan-wan. 
Prince Kung. See Ho-shih-kung-t'sin-wang. 
Prussia. See Po-lo-sz'. Tan-ying. 
Pulo Condor. See Kwan-t'un. 
Pulo Nias. See Ni-shi. 
Putek. See Pu-teh-ha-ching. 


Quedah. See Kih-tsah. 
Quemoy island. See Kin-mun. 
Quilon. See Kii-lan. 


Rajagriha. See P'in-p'o-so-lo. Wang-sWd. 

Rama. See Lan-mo. 

Rebels. See T'ien-kwoh. Yueh-fei. 

Red Sea. See Hung-hai. 

Rodok. See Lo-to-keh-cliing. 

Roman Catholicism. See T'ien-chu-kiaui 

Roman empire. See Fuh-lin-kwoh. Hai-si-kwoh. 

Li-han. Ta-t'sin. Wu-c'hi-kwoh, 
Russia. See Lu-si-ya. Ngo-kwoh. Ngo-lo-si, 

Russian Mission, Peking. See Ngo-kwoli-niu 



Sacai. See Kiu-seh. 

Sagalien island. See P'eh-hia-i. 

Sagalien river. See Heh-lung-kiang. Kwan-t'ung. 

Sagalien ula. See Heh-lung-kiang-ching. 
Saigon. See Chen-ching. 
Sairim. See Sai-li-muh-ching. 
Salat. See Sih-lah. 
Samarang. See San-pau-lung. 
Samarcand. See Sah-ma-rh-han. Shie-mi-sz'-han. 
Samye. See Sang-li. 
Sancian island. See Shang-ch'uen-shan. 
Sangkoi river. Sek Ho-ti kiang. 
Sanlak. See Banca. 
Sansang. See San-sing-ching. 
Sanscrit. See Fan. 
Sararchi. See Sah-Ia-tsi. 

Sardansu. See Ching-tu-lu. 

Scinde. See Shin-tuh. T'ien-tuh. 

Scythians. See Hien-yun. Mih-kieh-kwoh. Ta- 

Sechuen. See Ching-tu-lu. Pa-shuh. Shuh. 
Secret societies. See Ko-lau. San-hoh-hwui. 
Seranis. See Sih-tsz'-nien. 
Serfs. See Shen-hu. 
Shakyamuni. See Shih-kia-mau-ni. 
Shan-yu. See Tan-yu. 
Shanghai. See Shang-hai. Hu-tuh. 
Shang-kuh. See Siuen-hwa-fu. 
Shansi. See Ho-peh. Ho-tung. Si-lu. Tsin-ti. 
Shantung. See Timg-lu. Tung-miau. 
Shensi. See A-kwan. Kwan-chung. Kwan-lui. 

Shen-chau. T'sin-king. 
Sheudi. See Shau-ni. 
Shiites. See Ta-shih. 
Shobando. See Shih-pan-to-ching. 
Shoghnan. See Kang-kii. 
Siam. See Sien-lo. 

Siang-ho-k'au, or Siang-k'au. See Han-k'au. 
Siang-yang fu. See Siang-ho. 
Siberia. See Hi-kwoh. Sz'-me-li. 
Sikok. See Sin-lo. 
Silver island. See Tsiau-shan. 
Sindufu. See Ching-tu-lu. 
Slnganfu. See A-ching. Chang-ngan. Chau-fu. 

Hien-yang. King-chau. Ngan-si. Si-king. 
Singapore. See Sih-lah. Sin-kia-po. 
Singuy. See Sl-ngan-fu. 
Sinhala. See Sz'-tsz'-kwoh. 
Sinus magnus. See Ta-hai. 
Siueh-ling. See Pa-yen-k'eh-lah. 
Suake island. See Shie-su. 
Sogdiana. See Kang-kii. 
Sogomornbarkan. See Shih-kia-mau-ni. 
Songares. See Ngeh-lu-teh. Ha-mih. Tu-rh- 

Songari river. See Sung-hwa-ho. 
Songaria. See T'ien-shan-peh-lu. 
Soochow. See P'ang-ching. San-wu. Wu-chung. 
Sora Mikado. See T'ien-tsz'. 
Soungar. See Chun-kieh-rh. 
Sourabaya. See Sz'-li-mau. 
South Laos. See Nan-chang. 
Spain. See Shih-pan-niu. Ta-lu-sung. 
Sribodja. See Shih-li-fuh-chih. 
St. John's island. See Shang-ch'uen-shan. 
Suiyip. See Sui-yeh. 
Suloo territory. See Su-Iuh. 


Sumatra. See San-fuh-tsi. Su-men-tah-lah. 
Sunnites. See Su-ni-teh. Ta-shih. To-lun* 

Surat. See Su-ho-t'u. 
Su-wan-tah-lah. See Su-mun-tah-lah. 
Swatow. See Shan-t'n. 
Sweden. See Shwui-kwoh. 
Sypangu, See Jeh-pun-kwoh. 
Syria. See Ju-li-ya. Ju-teh-ya. T'ien-chuh-kwoh. 


Tagaung. See Ta-kang-kwoh. 

Taipings. See T'ien-kwoh. Yueh-fei. 

Taitun. See T'siuen-chau-fu. Hia-t'au. 

Tajiks. See Hwui-hwiii. Ta-shih. Tu-po-Io-men 

Tamerlane. See Tieh-muh-er. 

Tamlook. See Tan-mei. 

Tamsiii. See Tan-sui. 

Tanduc. See Ta-t'ung. Yun-chung. 

Tang-chang. See Tang-chau. 

Tangut. See Ho-si. Kau-chang. Tang-hiang. 

Taprobane- See Tu-po-kwoh. 
Tarakai. See Peh-hia-i. T'au-i. 
Tarbagatai. See Tah-rh-pa-ha-tai-ching. 
Tarim river. See Lo-pu-nau-rh. P'u-chang-hai. 
Tartar princes. See Kung-t'sin-wang 
Tartars. See K'i. Pah-k'i. Ta-kin. Tah-tah-rh. 

Tashtava. See Tarbagatai. 
Tasigan. See Tah-shih-kan. 
Tatars. See Tah-tan. Mung-ku-jin. 
Tathagata. See Jii-lai-fuh. 
Temugin. See Ching-kih-sz'-kan. Teh-moh-chin 
Tenasserim. See Tun-sun. 
Tengri tagh. See Tang-keh-li. T'ien-shan. 
Teshu-h'lumbu. See Chah-shih-lun-pu-ching. Jeh- 

Teshu-Iama. See Chah-shih-lun-pu-ching, 
Thibet. See Hau-tsang. Si-tsang. T'sien-tsang. 

T'u-peh-teh. Wei-tsang. Wu-sz'-tsang. 
Thibetans. See Si-fan. T'u-fan. Wu-sz'- 
Thinse. See Si-ngan-fu. 
Timor. See Chi-wan. 
Timur. See Tieh-muh-er. 
Tinghai. See Chau-shan. Chang-kwoh. 
Tocaido. See Tung-hai-tau. 
Tocharia. See Ho-si. 
Tola river. See Ku-lun. 
Tolonnor. See K'au-peh-tau. To-lun-noh-rh. 
Tonquin. See Ming-tu. Tung-king. 

Toumets. See Sui-yuen-ching. Tu-meh-teh. 

Tourbeths. See Tu-rh-peh-teh. 

Treaty-ports of China. See Chi-fau. Chin-kiang. 

Fuh-chau. Han-k'au. Hia-men. Hwang-pu. 

Ki-lung. Kiu-kiang. Kwang-chau-fu. Ning- 

po-fu. Niu-chwang. Shan-t'u. Shang-hai. 

Tai-wan. Tan-sui. Tung-ning. Tang-chau- 

fu. T'ien-tsin. Yen-t'ai. Ying-t'z'. 
Triad Society. See San-hoh-hwui. 
Trincomalee. See Ku-ma-lah. 
Tsakhar. See Chah-ha*rh. 
Ts'i chau. See Tsi-nan-fu. 
Tsiampa. See Chen-ching. Chen-pi. P'ing-shun- 

chin, Shi-pi. 
Tsiando. See Chah-muh-to-ching. 
Tsitsihar. See Heh-lung-kiang-ching. Tsi-tsl-ha* 

Tuchetu. See K'eh-rh-k'eh-t'u-si6-t'u. 
T'u-tah. See Yen-tah. 
Tuguchuk. See Sui-ting-ching. 
Tung^ni insurrection. See Ho-tien-ching. 
Tungusic tribes. See K'i-tan. Mieh-t'sien. Nu- 

chih. Sien-pi. Suh-shin-shi. Tah-tah-rhi 

Tung-yu-i. See Yu-i. 
Turcomans. See Turkmans. 
Turfan. See Ho-chau. Kau-chang. Tu-lu-fan- 

ting. T'sing-hai. 
Turk city. See Tah-rh-ki-ching. 
Turkestan (Chinese or Eastern). See Hwui-kiang. 

Sin-kiang. T'ien-shan-nan-lu. Tuh-ho-lo. 
Turkey. See Tu-rh-keh. 
Turkic tribes. See Che-sz'-kwoh. Hiun-yuh. 

Hiung-nu. Hwui-k'i. Nu-i. Peh-yang. Sah- 

kia. San-jung. Tuh-kiueh. San-yu, or Tan- 

yu, and Oh-shl. 
Turkmans. See Hung-mau-hwui-tsz'. Tu-po-lo- 

Tycoon. See Kung-fang. T'ai-kwan. Tsiang- 

Tykes. See Tih. 

Uchang. See "Wu*chang-kwoh. 

Uigurs. See HvFui-teh. Hwui-hwui. Hwni-kuh. 

Kau-ch6. Pih-chen. 
Ugro-tataric tribes. See Juh. Kau-ch6. Kiang. 

Ulgunkash. See Yuh-lung-ho. 
Uliasutai. See Wu-li-ya-su-t'ai. 
Urats. See Wu-lah-tih. 


Urga. See Ku-lun. Mai-mai-chin. 

Uriankai tribes. See Tang-nu-wu-liang-hai. 

Urumtsi. See Tih-hwa-chau. 

Usbeks. See Hwui-heh. Kau-ch6. 

Ushi. See Wei-t'u-kwoh. Wu-shih-chlng. Yung- 

Uauri river. See Wu-su-li. Yu-p'i-tali-tsz'. 

VemSe. See K'eh-shih-kieh-rh ching. 


Whampoa, See Hwang-pn. 

White desert of China. See Lo-to-keh ching. 

Wongpoo. See Hwang-p'n. 

Wonin. See Wang-jin. 

Wuchang. See Ngoh-cha. T'ung-ting-hu. 

Wolianghai tribes. See Tang-nu-wu-liang-hai, 

Yachi. See Tarli-fo. 

Yacsa See Yd-keh-s4h. 
Yah-tah. See Yen-tah. 
Yangchow. See Poh-lo. Yang-chau. 
Yangtsz' river. See Chang-kiang. Heh-shwui, 
Kiang-shwui. Kin-sha-kiang. King-kiang. 
Lu-kiang. Ma-hu-kiang, Min-kiang. Ta. 
kiang. Tu-kiang. Wan-kiang. Yang-tsz'- 
kiang. Shuh-kiang. 
Yaritsangbo river. See Ya-Iu-tsang-pu. 
Yarkand. See Yeh-rh-kiang-ching. Sha-kii-kwoh. 
Yeddo. See Kiang-hu. j 

Yellow river. See A-keh-tan. A-rh-tan. Ho. 
Hwang-ho. Ho-yuen. Ho4'au. Sing-suh- 
hai. Si-ho. Ta-ch'uen. 
Yellow sea. See Puh-hai. Tung-yang. 
Yemen. See T'ien-fang-kwoh, 
Yen. See Yen-king. 
Yen-shan. See Yen-king. 
Yongihassar. See Yingeshar. 
Yengi kurghan. See Yen-kwoh. 
Yengu, See Yuen-ku-ching. 
Yerkiang. See Sba-ku-kwoh. 
Yesso. See Hia-i. Peh-hia-i. 
Yingeshar, See I-nai-kwoh. Yingfkjh-sha-rh- 

Yokohama. See Hung-pin, 
Yuen-yuen. See Ju-ju. 

Yu's provinces. See K'i-chau. King-chau. Liang- 
chau. Su-jung. T'sing-chau. Yang-chau. 
Yen-chau, Yu-chau. Yung-chau. 
Yurung kash. See Yuh-lung-ho. 
Ya-t'o-li. See San-fuh-tsi, 
Yuts. See Ta-yueh-chi. 

Zaitun, See Taitun. 
Zardandan. See Kin-ch'i. 
Zariavshan. See Sah-ma-rh-han. 
Zendavesta. See Po-sz'-king-kiau. 
Zhikdtsi. See Jeh-hoh-tseh. 
Ziaku. See Shuh-chau. 
Zoroaster. See Po-sz'-kiug-kiau. 
Zypangu. See Sypangu. 

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